Railway Accounts Department Examinations

Tuesday, August 28, 2018



One must be cover up the entire Engineering Code i.e., all chapters for attempting the optional General Expenditure Paper and GRP - General Rules & Procedures.  However, among the total 19 chapters, the following Nine chapters are more important and for quick revision.

Chapter No
Click the given LINK for ready access
Organisation & Administration
Investment Planning & Works Budget
Execution of works
Contracts for Works
Initial Records
Initial Account of Revenue & Works Expenditure
Expenditure & Budgetary Control
Completion of Railway Projects


Codes and Manuals of Indian Railways

for access to 
all codes and manuals of Indian Railways

Annexure J of Appropriation Accounts - A Power Point Presentation

Difference between Vetting and Concurrence

Difference between Vetting and Concurrence

Vetting:   refers to conforming of a factual correctness of figure or statement of figures.
Examples: Vetting of Briefing Note, Estimates, Purchase Order etc.

Concurrence:  refers to agreeing a proposal in its entirety including the figures given under proposal.
Examples: Concurrence for construction of new bridges, replacement of machinery, etc.

Note: Extract from the comments given by F(X)/Dte in reply to information sought under RTI Act, 2005.


How to attempt the with Books question paper of Optionals in Appendix III (IREM) exam - Here is the expert guidance offered by Ms.Usha Raman, Faculty at University of Hyderabad

How to attempt the “With Books” question paper in Appendix III A Examination
(Excerpts from the article “Have  you ever written on open book or take-home examination” by Usha Raman.  The article is published on 08th April, 2013 in Hindu Newspaper. For full article refer the given link

ü  The questions were designed in a way such that the answers would not be readily available from any single text or source.

ü  Students should apply their own ideas to the questions before they could come with answers in such examinations.

ü  The questions themselves were fairly open-ended, and as such, did not have any one “correct” answer.

ü  A few were excited at the possibility of such open-endedness.

ü  As we progress through higher levels of education, we need to develop the ability to tackle a variety of question formats and test patterns. 

ü  Questions that draw on a combination of information recall and critical thinking, which demand that we draw not only on what has been taught overtly in a course, but also on a broader understanding of issues and also our own experience.

ü  Obviously, these questions do not have a single correct answer.

ü  They may be answered from a variety of perspectives and bring in widely divergent pieces of information.

ü  It’s about seeing for yourself if you are good enough to get to the next level. It’s up to you to set the boundaries of the answer (within reasonable limits of course) and think in unexpected ways. In fact, that is the only expectation—that you will do the unexpected.

(The author teaches at the University of Hyderabad and edits Teacher Plus magazine. 
Email: usha.raman@gmail.com )

TWFA - Transfers Without Financial Adjustments

1990,1995,1997 (with out Books) & 1994 (with Books)                                         5 Marks  - short notes question   
ü Expanded as “Transfers Without Financial Adjustments:”

ü Relates to Adjustment of transfer of Rolling Stock assets from One Railway or Unit to another Railway or Unit.

ü Journal Entry is not required.    Also raising Debits on another unit is Not required.

ü Done only through adjusting into the financial books of the Two Railways or Units by Transfer Entry.

ü The amounts simply added up in the Opening Balances for the year of Unit taking over the asset, and

ü Deducted from the Opening Balances for the year of the Unit surrendering the asset.

ü Purpose/ Advantage  of T W F A  :

1.      To avoid effect on financial accounts and budgeting.
2.     To rectify the progressive balances in respect of the accounts of the previous year already closed.
ü True examples of T W F A are:
A.    When the former State Rlys were integrated with the Indian Rlys during the year 1952, all assets belonging to the former were taken over by the respective zonal Rlys
B.     The existing balances in SRPF transferred to NCSRPF.

CAPITAL FUND - An Important short notes/Essay type question


1995 (with Books)   1997 (without Books)                                          5 Marks  - short notes question   

        Ü  Created w.e.f 1992-93 in pursuance of the recommendation of RCC 1991.

        Ü  Operated as a Minor Head under Major Head 8118.

        Ü  Credits to the Fund are:

A)     Appropriation of the Revenue Surplus after meeting obligations of

§  Payment of Principal as well as Interest on Loan to  D.F.
§  Appropriation of current year D.F.
§  Payment of deferred dividend.
B)      Interest on Capital Fund ( at the rate decided by the RCC)

        Ü  Debits to the Fund are:
 A)     This Fund is utilized to finance expenditure until now charged to Loan Capital , to the extent of balance available under this Head
B)      No separate rules existing for utilizing this Fund usually charged to all Plan Heads (except Plan Heads 11 & 51).

        Ü  To reduce the borrowings from General Revenues (i.e., Loan Capital or Gross Budgetary Support (GBS) from Government).  Because the loan capital  is non -refundable and interest bearing loan.  The Interest is paid in the form of Dividend to General Revenues.  Since Loan Capital is non – refundable, the payment of dividend also perpetual. 

        Ü  Year by year, the GBS (Gross Budgetary Support to Railways is declining. During 1975-76, the GBS is around 75 %.  Now in the year 2011-12, it came down to 34%.

        Ü  Plan Size of the Railways cannot be reduced, since capacity restrictions would endanger the economic progress of the country.   The gap between the requirements and the availability is to be bridged.  The only way is to increase internal resources, that’s why the creation of Capital Fund.

        Ü  No dividend will be paid on the expenditure met from the Capital Fund, as the same is generated from internal resources ( not borrowing from General Revenues).  On the other hand, Interest is credited to the Capital Fund on the balance of the Fund at the end of financial year.  (Rate of interest is equal to the Dividend rate and recommended by RCC from time to time)

        Ü  Total Investments made from Capital Fund till 2010-11 were Rs.38676 croresThat means every year, actual saving of Rs.2320 crores by avoiding dividend payment, since these investments are met from Capital Fund, not Capital. (if assumes dividend rate is 6%).

RSBY - Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana

RSBY - Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana

Being the latest  scheme ( In Indian Railways - 2011 year), this may be asked as Short Notes question in Appendix III A Examination.
»   launched by Ministry of Labour & Employment, Government of India in the year 2008.
»  Objective:  Protecting BPL(Below Poverty Line) families & informal sector workers of India from the shocks related to catastrophic expenditures of health by provide Health Insurance cover.
»    A Social Insurance scheme.
»  It is a Smart card based, Paperless and cashless facility.
»  Annual hospitalisation cover up to Rs.30,000 per family of 5 members.
»  Transportation expenses - Up to Rs.1,000 per year - provided in cash - for facilitating travelling to Hospital.
»  Rs.30 is one time registration fees paid by the beneficiaries at the time of registration.
»  Implemented through Health Insurance Companies by empanelling the hospitals throughout the India. Already 12,000 Hospitals are empanelled.
»  Premium paid to the Insurance companies   - 75 % by Central Govt.  and balance 25 % paid by State Govts.
»  Approximate premium is Rs. 350 in 2012 year.
»  No age limit for enrolment into this Scheme.
RSBY -Indian Railways

*               Authority: RBE No.12/2011 (Rly Bd. Letter No.2010-E(LL)/AT/USW/1 dated 27.01.2011.

*               As part of CSR - Corporate Social Responsibility, Indian Railways extends this scheme to APL (Above Poverty Line) categories in Indian Railways i.e., Licensed Porters, Licensed Vendors & Licensed Hawkers in the year 2011.

*               Because, the BPL (Below Poverty Line) categories of people are already covered in this Scheme by Ministry of Labour & Employment, Govt. of India.  But Indian Railways ensure that Licensed - Porters, Vendors & Hawkers under BPL  are covered under RSBY scheme implemented by the respective State Governments or not.

*               Main Points - RSBY - Indian Railways

A.    Railways share of premium  is Rs.565 per family or 75 % of Annual premium whichever is less

B.    Remaining 25 % premium - bear by the beneficiaries only, not State Govt. (because people covered under APL category)

C.     Zonal Rlys have to pay full premium one year in advance.

D.    Monitoring Dept. is Commercial Dept by nominating Key field officer at Divisional level and Co-ordinating Officer at Zonal Level.

E.     Implemented through State Nodal Agencies by State Govts.

F.     Accountal of Expenditure:

Abstract K - Demand No.12 - Misc. Working Expenses
Minor Head 600     -          Other Expenses
Sub Head     660     -           RSBY
Detailed Head 661 -          RSBY Premium
                            662 -          Other expenses
                            663 -          Credits for contributions paid by


Readers are advised to spread awareness of RSBY to the needy persons in Railways i.e., Licensed - Porters, Vendors & Hawkers as well as BPL categories in other sectors (Outside the Indian Railways) as part of our Social responsibility.


Results -2016 Appendix3 exam - Analysis

Click here 

Results for Appendix 3 exam

Rough Analysis for Results

  • 393 candidates are passed out of 2255 total candidates applied. Pass percentage is 17 %
  • 878 candidates are absent out of total 2255 candidates. That is 39 % candidates are absent for appearing the examination. 
  • That means 29 % candidates (393 candidates) are passed out of 1377 (2255-878) candidates appeared the examination
South Central Railway  - Results analysis

Total appeared6658Total passed1218
Total absent4742Total failed5482
Total applied113100Total appeared66100

For Results of Appendix 3 Exam, 2016 - click here

Toppers - Appendix 3 Examination, 2016 
(tentative list only)

Optional OneOptional Two
SNRollnoNameABKGRPWithWithoutWithWithoutTotal             marks%
100502PRADEEP KUMAR VERMA83637053707841770
200554MANISH KUMAR81666665636140267
302010SHIVA PRASAD PATTANAIK75496866756339666
405009RADHIKA SESHADRI75566353717739566
502517Himmat Singh83657069535539566
601033RAKESH KUMAR53777066606439065
700544ADITYA RANJAN75707164535438765
802555Pankaj Sharma58515473747638664
902034DHUSASAN BEHERA68455350846636661
1006621NITISH KUMAR49795647606535659
1100032SHRI SHASHANK S.HALDAVNEKAR44604251757935159
1206634PRAVEEN KUMAR57646062545435159
1303029ALOK KUMAR83635557484234858
1402580Gaurav Chandana40616447656634357
1501003HARENDRA KUMAR57417265515734357
1705055RAVIKUMAR K40565242826733957
1808561RAMANUJ PRASAD54454348806733756

Wednesday, August 15, 2018

Book keeping - Differences between Reserves & Provisions

Most Important question  - 4 times asked so far
1984, 1987, 1988, 1995
Differences between
1. Appropriation of Profits.  Means not mandatory.
1. Charged against Profits.  Means Mandatory.
2. Reserves are only made when the business is profitable.
2. Provisions are made irrespective of profits earned or losses incurred by a business.
3. Debiting P&L Appropriation A/c
3. Debiting P & L A/c
4. Shown on Liabilities side of Balance Sheet
4. Shown on Liabilities side of Balance Sheet or Deduct from the Asset concerned.
5. Dividends can be paid out of Reserves.
5. Dividends cannot be paid out of Provisions.
6. Made to strengthen the financial position of a Business and meet unknown liabilities
6. Made to meet known liabilities such as doubtful debts.
7. Examples: General Reserve, Capital Reserve etc
7. Examples: Provision for Doubtful Debts, Provision for Depreciation, Provision for Tax, etc.,