Railway Accounts Department Examinations

Showing posts with label LDCE syllabus. Show all posts
Showing posts with label LDCE syllabus. Show all posts

Tuesday, August 16, 2022

Syllabus for AFA Post - LDCE

 Syllabus for AFA Post - LDCE 






General Principles of Government Accounting and Audit with Special reference to Railways



Books & Budget including Traffic Book



Traffic Accounts & Statistics






General Expenditure



Workshop Accounts



Stores Accounts


Professional Subject


105 Marks


General Knowledge



Official Language (Optional)


40 Marks

Part II


40 Marks


Part III - Management Accounts & Financial Justification for Expenditure


30 Marks

Grand Total

175 Marks


Comparison of New Pattern with 175 marks with old pattern i.e., 2 Papers with 150 Marks each

Old Pattern

New Pattern






General Knowledge

25 Marks

General Knowledge

25 Marks

No change


25 Marks



Removed English portion. Reduced 25 Marks

Official Language

15 Marks

Official Language

15 Marks

No change

General Principles of Government Accounting and Audit with Special reference to Railways

50 Marks

General Principles of Government Accounting and Audit with Special reference to Railways

15 Marks

Reduced 35 Marks

Books & Budget including Traffic Book

50 Marks

Books & Budget including Traffic Book

15 Marks

Reduced 35 Marks

Financial Justification for Expenditure

25 Marks

Financial Justification for Expenditure

15 Marks

Reduced 10 Marks

Management Accounting

25 Marks

Management Accounting

15 Marks

Reduced 10 Marks

Traffic Costing

25 Marks

Traffic Costing


Reduced 25 Marks

Traffic Accounts & Statistics


50 Marks

Traffic Accounts & Statistics


15 Marks

Reduced 35 Marks



50 Marks



15 Marks

Reduced 25 Marks

General Expenditure


50 Marks

General Expenditure


15 Marks

Reduced 35 Marks

Stores Accounts


25 Marks

Stores Accounts


15 Marks

Reduced 10 Marks

Workshop Accounts


25 Marks

Workshop Accounts


15 Marks

Reduced 10 Marks


Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Question Bank - LDCE for Accounts Dept - by Shri Mohd. Afzaluddin, Sr.AFA/SR

Note: Answer Hyperlinks are available in the Blog for the questions (nearly 80 questions) which are highlighted in yellow colour. Please click and get the answers

Question Bank for LDCE of Accounts Dept-Paper I


By Shri Mohd. Afzaluddin, Sr.AFA/SCR


SECTION :A   [50 Marks]


General knowledge,English,Official Language Policy


(Need to attempt questions up to a maximum of 50 marks from these topics)


                                                                         I.          General Knowledge

1.              Current affairs

2.              Indian Railways 

3.              Abbreviations

4.              Books and Authors

5.              Persons and places associated with

6.              Inventions & Discoveries 

7.              Functions of Instruments/Apparatus

8.              Who is who

9.              Indian History and geography

10.          Famous committees


                                                                        II.        General English 

1.              Essay writing

2.              Paragraph writing

3.              Distinguish between words like ‘Compliment & Complement’etc

4.              Correct spelling

5.              Idioms and Phrases, Synonyms and Antonyms

6.              Making sentences, One word answers

7.              Common legal/Latin words used in English

8.              Re Write as directed

a.    Active voice-Passive voice

b.    Change the tense

c.    Direct indirect speech

d.   Degrees of Comparison

e.    Change of sentence by using “too,to” ; “so, that” etc


                                                               III.       Official Language- 15 Marks

(This is generally clubbed with Essay writing as an optional question)


1.      Official Language Policy Implementation on IR. What are the Steps being taken to promote use of Hindi in Railways?

2.      Write briefly about Official Language Act and Rules? Write briefly about Rajbasha as a link language in a multilingual country?

3.      What are the duties and responsibilities of the Mukhya Rajbasha Adhikari of a Zonal Railway? 

4.      What are the incentives given to Railway employees on promotion of Rajbhasha Policy including for passing Hindi prabodh, Praveen and pragya examinations?

5.      What are the salient features of the official language policy of government of India as per the official languages Act 1963? Name the states which fall in A,B,C regions and why was it necessary to make different regions for implementation of Official languages Act 1963?


Section-B     [50 Marks]General Principles of Govt Accounting & Auditingwith Spl reference to Railways


1.      Briefly explain any three Parameters that indicate the financial health of a Railway and Mention their Limitations. How are they worked out?


2.      “The Dual policy of following the Commercial and Govt Accounting Principles has made the Railway organization like one falling between two stools”. Comment on the statement duly explaining the structure of Railway Accounts, the linking heads of Accounts of Government & commercial accounting and its strengths & weaknesses.


3.      Explain briefly the meaning and purpose of Suspense Accounts maintained in the Railways?  Why are these reconciled with general books and reviewed periodically? Mention, for any five Important Suspense heads, the points that are looked into at the time of reviews?


4.      Define Operating Ratio and distinguish it from performance efficiency Index calculated for

Divisions. Do you recommend the latter for judgingZonal Railways ‘performance too? Can the Operating ratio be used to compare theperformance of two Zonal Railways?

Based on the data relating to ABC Railway (data to be given/assumed) over three years from which please Compute 

[i] operating Ratio, [ii] Surplus/short fall (iii) Net Revenue


5.      “Indian Railways slowly and steadily inching towards a state of Privatization and over- financing its projects from EBR and EBR IF which may lead to bankruptcy or financial disaster”. Substantiate the statement. What are the reasons for such situation and how can such a calamity be averted?


6.      “In recent times there has been an increasing shift towards accrual accounting as distinct from cash accounting in Governments. While developing countries have gone in for some Aspects of accrual accounting as basis for budgeting and reporting, the international systems for compiling government finance statistics and National Accounts are wholly on accrual basis. The Government of India is also considering such a move”


This was a view expressed by a former FC of Railways; please evaluate the virtues of switchover and the arguments against accrual accounting. What are the significant changes made in the process of implementing accrual accounting? 


7.      Thepublic accounts committee of Parliament has repeatedly criticized themisclassification in Accounts and mistakes in Budgeting. Analyze the causes formisclassification in accounts and Mistakes in budgeting? Suggest appropriatemeasures to reduce if not eliminate them?


8.      Distinguish Between Internal Audit and External Audit. Give Suggestions as to how Internal Audit can be strengthened and streamlined to enable meaningful introspection.


9.      How is parliamentary control over railway finances exercised? Explain how the accounting Classification and the rules of allocation enable the exercise of parliamentary control over Expenditure?

10.  What is the object of preparing Appropriation Accounts? What are the various annexure accompanying Appropriation accounts? What is the information given therein and how is the Variations Explained?


11.  (a) What is Statutory Audit?  How are results of Statutory Audit communicated and how each one of them is dealt and disposed off?


Highlight some of the Audit Paras included in the latest CAG Report pertaining to your Railway.  Comment whether the objection/criticism of the Audit is constructive?  If yes, why yes? and if no, why no?.  


The C&AG has taken a serious note of huge unsanctioned expenditure on IR by including a para in the CAG Report 2017-18. Comment on the reasons for such high increase of unsanctioned expenditure. How to minimize the incurrence and regularize such unsanctioned expenditure?  


12.  Whatare various Indices used to judge performance of the Railways? Explain brieflyeach one of them. How operating ratio is worked out? Is it a reliable index forjudging the efficacy of a Railway?


13.  Bring out the details of impact of merger of Railway budget with General budget?


14.  What is the need for Audit when Account Department on Railways performs the function of Internal Check and Internal Audit. 


For Bit questions please see at the end of Paper 


Section- C   [50 Marks]

Books and Budget [ including Traffic Book]


1.      (a) What are various sources of funds being operated on Indian Railways?  Explain the sources of credit to these funds and rules governing debiting of these funds? (b) Is DRF under provided on IR?

(c) Rules (extant) governing RRSK


2.      What are General Books and Subsidiary Books being maintained by Railways?  Explain the purpose for maintaining each one of them.  Can some of them be dispensed with? If so, list and enumerate the reasons. 


3.      What are the latest developments in processing the Monthly/Annual Accounts of Railways?

4.      What do you understand by Intra Railway and Inter Railway Transactions? What do you understand by E-recon?  What are its advantages and shortcomings?  Suggest measures for effective and successful implementation of E-recon.


5.      Explain Traffic Book and its parts.  What are the provisions relating to apportionment of earnings among Railways?  Can we dispense with apportionment of earnings considering the fact that IRs is under one management?


6.      What are the latest developments in processing the Railway Budget and its control?

7.      What do you understand by IRPSM?  How does it help in compilation of Capital Budget and financial appraisal of railway works/projects?  What are its advantages and shortcomings?  How can the process be improved?

8.      Explainwhy approximate account current was dispensed and single accountimplementation, giving the details of road map for generating of Single AccountCurrent.


9.      What do you understand by Remittance Transactions? Write briefly about various Suspense heads operated for accountal of Remittance transactions. 

10.  Explain CIPS. How does it function? What are its advantages and limitations? 


15.  Describe the procedure adopted for remittances of station collections to cash office and its further dispatch to the Reserve bank of India. How is it ensured that earnings are properly credited to the Railway Accounts?


16.  What is Cash in Transit?  What are its components?  What is the implication of huge Cash in Transit?  Suggest some measures for keeping the Cash in Transit at the barest minimum.


17.  What are the various elements of Non Fare Revenue? Suggest some measures for improvement in the process for generation of more NFR.


18.  What are the functions of Cash and Pay office?  Suggest some measures for minimizing the cash handling both at Pay and Cash offices. Whether cash pick up from stations by SBI is useful/economical to railways. What are the difficulties in the process? How can we ensure that the cash so collected by the Bank is deposited in the Railways Account promptly and stipulated time? 


19.  What is Door step banking? How does it reduce the Cash in Transit? 


20.  What is IPAS?  What are its constituents/modules? How is the software useful in day to day discharge of Accounts functions?   What are your suggestions for effective implementation? What are the modules which are yet to be implemented on Indian Railways? 


21.  It is seen that the Balances and RIB & C&B is alarming. Discuss the reasons for it. How can we bring the balances to current? Whether CIPS is useful in maintaining the balances efficiently?


22.  Examine critically the system of preparing Budget estimates with special reference to any of the Demands (other than Demand no. 16).


23.  What are Capital and Revenue Accounts? What purpose do they serve and how are they compiled?

24.  What do you understand by Re-appropriation of funds? What are the extant powers of General Manager for Re-appropriation? What are the areas where re-appropriation is not permissible? 

25.  After computerization is there any need for reconciliation of general books with subsidiary books like RAR etc. Support your answer with reasons. 


26.             Short Notes


1.     Performance Budget

2.     Vote on Account

3.     Sundry Earnings

4.     Primary Unit of Exp

5.     Management by Exception

6.     Civil Grants

7.     Productivity test

8.     Canons of Financial Propriety

9.     GFR-General financial rules 2017

10.  TWFA 

11.  PEI

12.  TWFA

13.  Ways and Means




14.Centralized Apportionment System, 15.Incremental Capital Output Ratio,

16.  Re-appropriation.

17.  Approximate Balance Sheet, 

18.  Integrated Budget

19.  Zero Based budget

20.  Outcome budget

21.  Credits outside scope of demands

22.  Cut motions

23.  PAO suspense

24.  RCC

25.  Debt Head Report

26.  Debit & minus credit


Distinguish between

1.         Appropriation A/cs and Appropriation Bill

2.         Voted and Charged Expenditure

3.         Budget Orders Expenditure Orders

4.         Refunds and Remissions

5.         Write off and Write back

6.         NEFT and RTGS

7.         Draft Para and Audit Para

8.         Cheques and Bills  & Remittance into bank.

9.         Reserve bank suspense & Deposit with reserve Bank

 10.Pre-check and post-check of claims in ACCOUNTS. 

11.     Demands payable and Demands Recoverable,

12.     Traffic Receipts and Misc Receipts

13.     Exchequer control and Budgetary control

14.     Bills recoverable  and Bills payable

15.     Performance Audit & Regulatory Audit

16.     Statutory Audit & Internal Audit

17.     Internal Check and Internal Audit

18.     Accounts Balance Sheet and Station Balance Sheet










SECTION :A {50 Marks}

Financial justification for expenditure, Traffic Costing and Management Accounting


Financial Justification:


1.What is financial appraisal and what are various techniques of financial appraisal of Railway Projects? Prepare a financial justification under DCF technique for construction of

a.       A new line project of 100 KMs 


b.      Provision of crossing station on a single line section


c.       Bye pass line


d.Any other traffic facility work, 

           [Assuming your own figures of earnings/savings and expenditure]


2.      Examination of Financial proposals for creation of Infrastructure on Railways has  become mere formality:

a.       In the context of Indian railways state the cases where financial Justification is required for incurring Expenditure.

b.      What are the shortcomings in the financial appraisal of such proposals?

c.       What are your suggestions for an effective system for financial appraisal of Proposals?  


3.      Railways have been financing its Rolling stock requirements through lease financing. Recently, Railways have resorted to extensive financing Railway projects through market Borrowing. Please substantiate the statement. Repayment of interest and capital components commences during the current financial year. Describe the railway experience of market borrowing through EBR [IF] so far andthe way forward.


4.      ”Before making plans for execution of projects, proper feasibility studies should be Carried out along with accurate financial justification to ensure expected returns as well as optimal utilization of assets to be created” 


Against this background, critically  examine if the stated objectives are examined prior to sanctioning of a Project and also after commencement of the project?


5.      What do you understand by IRPSM?  How does it help in compilation of Capital Budget and financial appraisal of Railway works/projects?  What are its advantages and shortcomings?  How can the process be improved?



Traffic costing


1.      “An efficient costing system is essential and necessary for Indian Railways.”  Describe the salient features of the Traffic Costing system in force in Indian Railways. Discuss the limitations of Traffic Costing Existing on Railways? What are your suggestions for improving the present Traffic costing system? What is your assessment of the usefulness of Traffic costing for Pricing Rail Transport?


2.      What is the Purpose of Traffic costing on IR? What are the different aspects of Traffic Costing? How is Traffic Costing Data (derivatives compiled by traffic Costing cell) used in Financial matters on IR?


Management Accounting:


1.      How is Management Accounting different from Financial Accounting? Identify two areas of Railway working where management accounting methods can be usefully applied with examples.

2.      What are functions of management Accountant and skills required for management accountant. Discuss how a finance officer is working as Management Accountant on Indian Railways.

3.      What are the important Financial Ratios applicable to Indian Railways and explain how the following Ratios are worked out on IR. (a) Operating Ratio, [b] Return on Capital, [c] Current Assets and Liabilities; Explain how the compilation is useful in implementation of Accrual accounting on Railways?

4.      What are the various types of modules of computerization used in Management Accounting? 

Short Notes

(Management Accounting, Traffic costing and Financial Justification):


1.       Sensitivity analysis and variance analysis.

2.       Rateof return and break even point.

3.       Viabilitygap funding

4.       Marginalcost and average cost.

5.       General on cost and Proforma on cost. 

6.       Financial Ratios.

7.       Debt equity ratio.

8.       RatioAnalysis.

9.       Costbenefits analysis.

10.   Liquidity Ratios – Current, Quick, Very Quick.

11.   Solvency Ratios – Debt Equity, Proprietary, Interest coverage

12.   Activity Ratios – Inventory TOR, Debtors TOR, Creditors TOR, Fixed Assets, Total Assets,

13.   Profitability Ratios – Both Investment (return on investment, return on capital, dividend per share, earnings per share and price earnings ratio) and Sales (gross profit ratio, net profit ratio, operating ratio, net profit operating ratio, expenses ratio.  14.Functions of Management Accountant 15.Marketable securities. 

16.   Specific fuel consumption

17.   Differential pricing

18.   Fully distributed cost

19.   Standard costing

20.   SPV

21.   Make of Buy Decision

22.   Boot

23.   PPP

24.   EBRIF

25.   RRSK

26.   UmbrellaWorks

27.   PETS 

28.   DCF technique

29.   NPV and PWF

Distinguish between: 


1.         Equity shares and preference shares

2.         Share capital and loan capital

3.         Contribution and profit

4.         Break even point and cost benefit analysis

5.         Equity and Debt

6.         Earnings per share and Dividend per share

7.         Cash flow and funds flow

8.         Shares and debentures

9.         PERT &CPM

10.     IRR and ROR

11.     PWP & FWP

12.     RSP & M&P

13.     LSWP & LAW





Paper II-Section B


Optional Subjects

100 marks for each group


B.   Traffic Accounts, Statistics and Establishment


C.  General Expenditure,Stores and workshop Accounts


B1.Traffic Accounts


1.         With an advent of computer applications viz, PRS, UTS, FOIS which practically cover all earnings in the Stations, Explain the relevance of Station Inspection by TIAs and check of Station returns at Traffic Accounts Office. Also suggest how these applications can help to improve the Station inspections?

2.         What improvements can you suggest to the present system of station Inspections? Is there a need for present system of post check of station returns after Computerization of passenger and freight Transactions? Give cogent reasons for your answer.


3.         What are all checks exercised  in the Traffic Accounts office in the following cases/returns:

[1]  Checks to be conducted in UTS/PRS collected tickets

[2]  Check of Wharfage and Demurrage returns

[3]  Check of Siding statements

[4]  Check of Handling Bills

[5]  Check of Non Issued tickets

4.         What are the checks exercised in TAO on the following 

[a]   Collected tickets

[b]   Siding returns

[c]   Concession Vouchers

[d]  EFTs

[e]   PRS and SPTM earnings 

[f]    Checks on Non-issued Tickets


5.         What constitutes “Traffic Suspense”? What measures would you suggest to reduce the balances outstanding under “Traffic Suspense”?        

[b]  What are the usual types of debits raised on Stations? 

[c]   What steps to be taken by the Traffic Accounts office to minimize        Station outstanding?

6.         The work of Travelling Inspector of Accounts and Traffic Accounts office complements each other. The short comings of one are made up by the strengths of another. Discuss with specific points. Are there any other areas not covered by both? If so, how these are got covered?

7.         Explain how ‘E-payment of Freight and E-ticketing of passenger tickets’ have helped the Rail- users? Railways have also gained by introducing these. Please elucidate?

8.         Explain the system of E-Payment of freight. Elucidate the impact of its Implementation on Railway’s working? Briefly explain the aspects that are required to be looked into for giving freight Discount under the Liberalized siding rules? 

9.         The system of Apportionment of earnings between zonal railways should be Abolished” Give your views, in detail, in support or against this statement?

10.     What is Traffic Suspense? What are the Constituents of Traffic Suspense? Please Explain?  What is the role of Traffic Accounts office in minimizing the different Components of Traffic suspense? Why does the clearance of Traffic suspense during the financial year itself Assume importance?  What is the significance of Traffic Suspense with reference to Operating Ratio? Explain in detail

11.     Define Traffic Book and its parts. What does each part represent? Explain in detail Part B with latest developments of apportionment in detail

12.     What is Earnings Budget? How this is different from Railway Budget? Explain in detail the process of preparation of the same

13.     What is the difference between internal check and internal audit? Explain in detail the above two aspects with reference to Traffic Accounts

14.     What is the purpose of online balance sheets and explain the advantages of online balance sheets both to Accounts and Comml Depts

15.     What is Dynamic Pricing Policy and in which areas Indian Railways have implemented it. Describe in detail.

16.     List out 10 significant enhancement in delegation of powers to GM/DRM. What do you think of this impact of enhanced delegation?

17.     What is IREPS? How the tenders are invited and finalized in IREPS. What are the advantages and limitations in processing the tenders through IREPS.

18.     What is the role of TC in finalizing a Tender? What are the extant delegations of powers regarding constitution of Two Member/Three Member TC? What is the specific role and responsibility of Finance Member in TCs? 

19.     What are the various elements of Non Fare Revenue. Suggest some measures for improvement in the process for generation of more NFR.

20.     What are the functions of Cash and Pay office?  Suggest some measures for minimizing the cash handling both at Pay and Cash offices. Whether cash pick up from stations by banks is useful/economical to railways. What are the difficulties in the process? How can we ensure that the cash so collected by the Bank is deposited in the Railways Account promptly and stipulated time.

21.     What are various types of earning contracts? What is the procedure of award of earning contracts on Railways? What are the practical difficulties in realization of earnings though these contracts on your Railway? Suggest some measures for the system improvement. 


Short Notes (Traffic):


a)      Paid on charges

b)      Memo freight

c)      TatkalScheme

d)     Stationto Station Rate

e)      LTTC Scheme

f)       Cash in Transit

g)      Private Freight Terminal

h)      RCT

i)        FOIS

j)        TCW

k)      Linehaul costs

l)        Advice of Internal check

m)    occupancy Ratio

n)      Special credit

o)      Accounts office Balance sheet

p)      Net Results of apportionment 

r)       Refunds and Remissions

s)       Writeoff and Write back

t)       Cash check sheets

Distinguish Between:


a)      Accounts Office Balance sheet and JTBS Balance sheet

b)      I-ticketing and E-ticketing

c)      ERR and SRR

d)     Terminal Tax and Terminal Cost

e)      NTKM and GTKM

f)       Booked route and charged route

g)      Book transfers and Balance sheet transfers

h)      Error sheet and Overcharge sheet

i)        Advice of Internal check and Credit Advice Note

j)        Statistical Statements 7A and 7C

k)      Letter of intent &Letter of Credit

l)        Traffic book Part-A and Part-B

m)    Station outstanding and Demands Recoverable

n)      Terminal Charges/Tax and Terminal Cost

o)      Simple average and weighted average

p)      Dynamic pricing policy and traffic rationalisation.

q)      Demands Recoverable and Bills Recoverable










1.      Describe in detail the compilation of fuel statistics. What are the statistical parameters for judging the fuel efficiency of a Zonal Railway?

2.      How is the 10 day statement of Approximate Gross earnings prepared? Why is it necessary to compile the 10 day statement of Approximate of Gross earnings?   Is there a need for compiling this statement after the introduction of FOIS, PRS, UTS? Give cogent reasons for your answer.

3.      What are the important statistical parameters used for judging the operating efficiency Of a Railway, please explain?

4.      What is monthly Evaluation Report? Comments on its utility as a tool of managerial Information. Explain in detail how any five of the indices [area of performance] are compiled, bringing out the importance of each?

5.      Explain the preparation and purpose of the following monthly Statistical statements. i] 2     ii] 3A   iii] 6A   iv] 7A   v] 7C

6.      What are the important Statistical parameters used for judging the operating 

a.       Efficiency of a Railway? Please explain?.

b.      What is the purpose of Apportionment of Earnings?

c.       What are the principles on which Apportionment of different types of earnings is made?

7.‘Statistics however comprehensive, will not run the Railways ,but,will supply necessary data  with the help of which various problems that arise on a day to day basis can be assessed and solved’ : It is useful to know the significance of various figures arrived in statistics.

In this context, explain the following statistics and their usefulness, and also indicate the caution to  be exercised while comparing these Statistics  between two Zonal  Railways: a.Engine available for use

b.           Net Tonne kilometers per wagon day

c.           Average haul

d.          Turn round of Wagon

e.           Average Speed of goods train.


SHORT NOTES (Statistics)


a.     Net tonne kilometre per wagon day.

b.    Net tonne kilometre per Engine day.

c.     Wagonturn – round

d.    Ineffective wagon day

e.     Engine kilometers

f.     GTKMs/ Engine hour 

g.    Empty wagon kms

h.    Siding charges

Distinguish between


a.     Statistical Statement 6A and 7A

b.    SFC and SEC

c.     GTKM and NTKM

d.    Operating ratio and performance efficiency index.  

e.     Originating earnings and Apportioned earnings,



1.      Describe in detail the procedure to be followed for imposing a major Penalty on a delinquent Railway servant quoting the relevant rules in support of your answer?\

2.      Give brief account of various Minor penalties and the procedure to impose the same?

3.      Is suspension a penalty? Give reasons for your answer? what payments are admissible to a Railway Servant during Suspension? What deductions can be made from Subsistence Allowance granted to a Railway Servant during Suspension? 

4.      Mention the basic checks that  need to be exercised in the internal check section of  Accounts Department  at various levels with regard to salary bill of a unit in on IPAS before authorizing payment. What are the areas to be streamlined in IPAS with reference to establishment bills. 

5.      Briefly write about the broad changes implemented as per the 7th CPC recommendations. 

6.      Frequent withdrawal indicate the provident fund has over the years lost the purpose For which it was conceived. state if you agree or not ,elaborating your answer. Give suggestions as to what incentives can be extended to encourage savings in P.F?

7.      What is Cadre Restructuring and why is it required to be done? Discuss the salient Points and implications of the Latest Cadre Restructuring Gazetted Staff on IR ?

8.      What is meant by Man Power Planning ? What are your suggestions towards rightsizing man power on IR. Revised Yardsticks have been stinulated for accounts department by railway board recently. Comment whether the yard sticks would be adequate for man power of accounts department. What would be the implications of these orders. 

9.      How is the correctness of Pension Payments Verified? Discuss its adequacy and Suggest improvements and/or alternatives, if any.

10.  Explain the Rules for creating Non-Gazetted revenue posts for maintenance and Operation of new Assets?

11.  Discuss the Salient Features of the New Pension System. What are the issues being Faced in proper accountal under NPS?

12.  What are the payments received by Railway Employees at the time of Superannuation? Please Explain. 

13.  Pension out go on our Railway is as high as the entire passenger earnings . Pension are paid by Banks and we exercise post –check of pension paid. Give that the data of all pensioners has now been sensitized  and available on ARPAN/IPAS  and the fact that many of the public sector banks are now sending the pension payment scrolls through  electronic mode.

14.  It may be explained how the internal check mechanism of payment  of pension can be re- invented  to guard against irregular/overpayment and at the same time ensuring redressing  the grievance of pensioners?

15.  Discuss the salient featured of NPS? Recently the Government contribution has been increased, what is the rationale behind the same? What are the issues faced in accountal of NPS? What are the various parameters to judge the efficiency of an accounting unit in the dispensation of NPS for its employees? What is the impact of the NPS on the working expenses of ZRs.

16.  What are the work charged and temporary and revenue posts. What are the rules for creation of these posts. What are the reasons for objectionable expenditure on sanctioned posts. How this is being regularized. 


Short Notes (Establishment)


a.      Supernumerary post & ex-cadre post

b.     Productivity linked bonus & Incentive Bonus

c.      Foreign service contribution

d.     Ex-gratia pension

e.      Extraordinary leave

f.      SF5

g.     Additional post allowance

h.     Next below rule

i.       Qualifying service

j.       Latest elements for considering financial implications for creating of    work charged 


k.     Pool of surrendered posts

l.       Vacancy bank

m.   Book of sanctions

n.     Workmen compensation act

o.     Kinds of leave and entailment

p.     Stepping up of pay

q.     Leave not due

r.       Staffbenefit fund

s.      Limited … 

t.       Civil grants


Distinguish between


a.     Same Time Scale and Identical Time Scale

b.    Overtime Allowance and Running Allowance

c.     Suspension of Lien and Termination of Lien.

d.    Fee and Honorarium

e.     Scale Check and Cadre check

f.     Hospital leave and Special disability leave

g.    Removal and Dismissal from Service




C. General Expenditure, Stores and workshop Accounts


1.      What is inventory control? How it is carried out in Railways? Has it been successful? 

2.      Whatis Turn over Ratio and how it is calculated. How it can be improved or influenced. 

3.      What is ABC Analysis? How it is implemented in Indian Railways.

4.      What are the various suspense balances in Stores Accounts. How they can influence Turnover ratio. 

5.      What are the methods of scrap disposal? Describe the process of e-auction in detail. 

6.      What is system for disposal of scrap? Describe the system from Survey to Delivery of scrap.

7.      How does the control over Capital and Revenue expenditure exercised on Indian Railways?

8.      When do we require preparing an estimate? What are the various types of estimates that are prepared for execution of Railway works? What is the Finance scrutiny on each one of them?

9.      What is unsanctioned expenditure? How does it get regularized?

10.  What are works registers? Explain how works registers help in control over capital expenditure? What are your suggestions for making Works registers an effective tool for COE?

11.  How inventory control is exercised on Railways?   What are your suggestions for effective material management?

12.  What are the reasons for abnormal excess over estimates? How can we control the increasing trend? What are the rules governing Material Modification and who are competent to sanction it?

13.  What do you understand by Arbitration? What are the reasons for the increased trend in Arbitration cases? Suggest certain measures to curb the menace?

14.  What are the various types of Stores Contracts and how are they finalized? What are the internal checks on Indents, Purchase Orders, Suppliers bills and receipt notes?

15.  What is WMS?  What does the balance represent? What are the reasons for increase in the balance and how can we keep the balance low?

16.  Why do variations occur in a contract? What are the latest rules governing the variations in the Contract? How can you avoid abnormal variations in a Contract?

17.  What is measurement Book?  What purpose does it serve?  What is the procedure for maintenance and disposal of these Books? 

18.  What is Contractor’s Measurement Book? What purpose does it serve and what are the rules governing it?  

19.  What do you understand by Umbrella Works? How many types of Umbrella works are there? Write the extant guidelines on approval/sanction and execution of these works. 

20.  What are the various types of works tenders? What are the requisites, advantages and limitations. What are the circumstances and delegation of powers where calling of tenders can be dispensed with? What is the procedure for award of the work on quotation basis.

21.  What are the latest modifications/delegations/amendments on tender and contract management? 

22.  What are the conditions/limitations for direct acceptance of works tenders?

23.  List out 10 significant enhancement in delegation of powers to GM/DRM. What do you think of this impact of enhanced delegation?

24.  What is the role of TC in finalizing a Tender? What are the extant delegations of powers regarding constitution of Two Member/Three Member TC? What is the specific role and responsibility of Finance Member in TCs? 

25.  What do you understand by Umbrella Works? How these works are proposed, approved and executed. What are the checks to be exercised on scrutiny of these works by Finance? 

26.  What are the various types of checks that are to be exercised on Contractors bills with specific reference to the final bill (FCC). How does IPAS help in scrutiny of the payments effectively?

27.  What is the necessity of separate GCC for services and works? What are the main differences between GCC for works contracts and services contracts?

28.  What is GeM and how it is different from DGS&D?  What are the latest guidelines on procurement of material and services through GeM.  What are the practical difficulties and teething problems in award of contract through GeM. How can we improvise? 

29.  What is IREPS? How the tenders are invited and finalized in IREPS. What are the advantages and limitations in processing the tenders through IREPS. 

30.  What is IRWCMS – INDIAN RAILWAYS WORKS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM? What are the advantages and how it is useful in execution of works and control over expenditure? 

31.  What are the reasons for cost overrun due to time over run?

32.  What is MMIS and how is it useful in Material Management

33.  List out 10 significant enhancement in delegation of powers to GM/DRM. What do you think of this impact of enhanced delegation?

34.  What is meant by Internal Audit? In what ways does it differ from internal check?

35.  What is unsanctioned expenditure. How each one of the category gets regularized. What is the role of accounts and finance officer in this regularization.

36.  What are various types of earning contracts? What is the procedure of award of earning contracts on Railways? What are the practical difficulties in realization of earnings though these contracts on your Railway? Suggest some measures for the system improvement. 


Short Notes (Stores, Workshop & General Expenditure)


1.    Deposit works

2.    Contractors Ledger

3.    On costs in a workshop

4.    Job Costing in a work shop

5.    Unified Standard Schedule of Rates

6.    Productivity test

7.    Canonsof Financial Propriety

8.    Price preference

9.    Counteroffer

10.Risk and Cost

11.Stock adjustment Account

12.Procedure for disposal of surplus stores and Scrap


14.PriceVariation Clause

15.Urgency Certificate

16.TwoPacket system of Tendering

17.Approved list of contractors

18.Reverse Auction Vs counter offer

19.Unified SoP

20.Liability register

21.Checks on contracts and miscellaneous bills

22.GM’s negative powers

23.EPC Contracts


Distinguish between


1.    Departmental charges and General Charges

2.    Security Deposit and Performance Guarantee

3.    Write off and Write back

4.    Demands recoverable and Bills Receivable

5.    Ordinary Revenue and Open line works revenue

6.    Safety fund and Special Railway safety fund 

7.    LSWP and LAW

8.    Lumsum works and Umbrella works 

9.    Maxima and Minima

10.Internal Check and Internal Audit