Railway Accounts Department Examinations

Saturday, December 31, 2022

Probation in Indian Railways


Probation in Indian Railways

  • What is Probation ?  A process of testing or observing the character or abilities of a person who is new to a role or job.

  • A person appointed in Railways will be on probation till he is assessed suitable for Railway service. 

  • Probationers who are assessed un-suitable for Railway service should be discharged from service immediately.

  • If Recruitment rules do not prescribe any probation period, such a person should be confirmed in service with immediate effect.

  • Probation period on Direct Recruitment and promotion from one Group to other Group is as under: 






Direct Recruitment to the post in Level 12 and above and to the posts for which maximum age  limit is 35 years and no initial training is required

1 year


Direct Recruitment to other posts

2 years


Promotion from one Group to other Group

2 years

  • Probationers will be given the opportunity to work in different fields under different officers to gain practical experience during the probation period.

  • Field officers should carefully assess the performance of the probationer, his outlook, character and aptitude towards learning etc and give their individual reports. 

  • Field officers reports are in addition to Annual Confidential Reports (APAR - Annual Performance Appraisal Report)

  •  The probation report will be reviewed by a committee of senior officers and give their recommendations to the Appointing Authority. 

  • Apart from passing the confirmation test at the end of probation, confirmation will also depend on the Probation Report. 

  • Probation period should not be extended for more than one year and in no case it should exceed the total period of probation. 

  • Probationer, whose performance is not satisfactory, should be notified of his defects and he should be discharged from service if he is a direct recruiter or reverted to lower Group if he is promoted from lower Group.

  • On discharge he is not eligible for compensation.

  • In all cases of Direct Recruitment, there must be at least two weeks of induction training.


Key Points for MCQ on Probation:

1.   Direct recruitment in Level 12 - Probation period is 1 year

2.               Posts other than Level 12 - Probation period is 2 years

3.               Promotion from one Group to another Group - Probation period is 2 years 

4.               Confirmation depends on 1. Passing the Confirmation test & Probation Report 

5.               All cases of Direct Recruitment  - Minimum induction period is 2 weeks 

6.               If performance is not satisfactory during Probation period

A.              Direct recruiter - Discharged from Service

B.   Promotee - Reverted to lower group



Tuesday, December 27, 2022

Seniority Rules




1.   On Initial Recruitment through RRB / RRC: 

  • Based on the merit position obtained in the examination held at the end of the training period.

  • Those who pass the training exam in subsequent batches will rank juniors to those who pass the training exam in earlier batches.

  • If candidates of the same RRB panel are sent for training in different batches as per panel position, their seniority after completion of training is fixed batch-wise.

  • If a candidate higher up in the RRB panel is not sent for training in the appropriate batch due to administrative reasons and sent for training in subsequent batch, he will be assigned seniority based on the merit position obtained in the examination held at the end of the training period.

  • If there is no initial training, the seniority is fixed based on the merit order of RRB/RRC examination. (Example: Office Clerks) 

In a Nutshell:

  • If initial training is there  - Merit position at the end of the training period is the basis for fixation of seniority. 


  • No initial training is required - Merit order of RRB / RRC Examination is the basis for fixation of seniority. 

2.               On promotion to Selection posts:

  • What is the Selection Post ? The vacancy in the post is filled by promoting a suitable employee from the lower grade by conducting written test, viva-voce (if any) & verification of records. example: LDCE / 70 % Selection to the Group B Gazetted posts

  • What is the Non Selection Post ? The vacancy in the post is filled by promoting the senior most employee in the lower grade only by verifying his service record only. 


Difference between Selection Panel & Select List

  • Selection Panel: The list showing the names of selected employees for promotion to the selection post.

  • Select List: The list showing the names of selected employees for promotion to the non-selection post

  • In the case of selection posts, seniority of promoted employees is fixed based on merit position assigned to them in the panel after the selection. This is called panel position.

  • Employees of the previous selection panel will be seniors to those of subsequent panels.

  • Employees who do not take promotion within the given time will rank juniors to those who take promotion earlier from the same panel and subsequent panels.

3.               On promotion to Non-selection posts:

  • In the case of non-selection posts, seniority of promoted employees is fixed based on the seniority position assigned to them in the lower grade.

  • Employees who do not take promotion within the given time will rank juniors to those who take promotion earlier from the same select list and subsequent select lists.

4.               Direct recruits Vs Departmental Promotees:

  • If vacancies in non-gazetted posts are to be filled both by promotions and by direct recruitment through RRB, their seniority is fixed based on date of joining the working post without changing their inter-se-seniority position of their respective groups. 

  • In case candidates of both the groups join on the same date, they will be given alternative positions starting with promoters e.g. first promotees, second direct recruit, third promotee, forth direct recruit so on. 

5.               Candidates of equal merits / Marks:

  • Date of Birth i.e., the older will be senior to the younger. 



6.               On Mutual Exchange Transfer:

  •  Length of service of his own or the seniority of the employee with whom they have mutual exchange, whichever is lower. 

  • Example: Mr A of SC division has taken mutual exchange transfer with Mr B of BZA division. Mr A has put in 10 years service in the present grade and Mr B is 7 years. On joining the new place, Mr A will be given the seniority position of Mr B and Mr.B will be given seniority based on his 7 years service. 

7.               Transfer on own request:

  •  Ranking junior to the existing confirmed and officiating employees in the relevant grade at new place (irrespective of his length of service in old place:   

8.               Transfer on Administrative Ground:

  • He will not lose his seniority. He will be given an appropriate position in the new seniority unit based on the length of service put in by him in the transferred grade.

9.               On absorption in alternative post on Medical decategorization:

  • Seniority of such staff in an absorbed post will be fixed with reference to the length of service rendered by him in equivalent or corresponding grade or higher grade.

10.         On imposition of penalty of withholding of annual increment or on imposition of penalty of reduction of pay in the present grade: 

  • Employee will not lose his seniority. 

11.         On imposition of penalty of reduction to lower grade for un-specified period or permanently:


Employee will lose his seniority in the grade from which he is reduced.

12.         On imposition of penalty of reduction to lower grade for a specific period with loss of seniority:

  • Employee will lose his seniority in the grade from which he is reduced to the extent of the penalty period.




Reservations in Recruitments and Promotions - Key points

                  Reservations in Recruitments and promotions - Key Points

  1. Articles 16 (4), 335, 341 and 342 of the Constitution of India provide for reservations in services in favor of SC, ST and other Socially and Economically backward classes.

  2. Article 16 (6) was inserted in the constitution through 103 amendment for providing reservation in favor of economically weaker sections w.e.f 14.01.2019.

  3.  Article 16 (4A) provides for reservation in the matter of promotions in favor of SC & STs.

  4.  SC, ST, OBC and EWS reservation is provided In recruitment to Group-A,B & C posts.

  5. In promotions reservation is provided for SC & ST only.

  6. The overall reservation should not exceed 50% both in recruitments and promotions.

  7. OBCs who are Creamy Layers ( i.e. whose family annual income is more than Rs 8 Lakhs) are not eligible for the benefit of OBC reservation.

  8. SC must be either Hindu or Sikh or Buddhist religion only.

  9. ST can be of any religion.

  10. Production of SC/ST/OBC caste certificate from the competent authority is a must to avail the benefit of reservations.

  11. Suitable departmental and criminal action will be taken for submission of fake certificates.

  12. The verification of SC/ST certificates should be verified within three months from the date of appointment.

  13. In recruitment reservation for SC/ST/OBC is 15%, 7.5% and 27% respectively .

  14.  In promotions reservation for 15% for SC and 7.5% respectively. No reservation for OBC in promotions.

  15. 10% of UR vacancies are reserved for Economically Weaker Section (EWS) candidates in recruitments. The candidates who are not covered under the existing scheme of reservations for SC,ST & OBC and whose family’s gross annual income is below 8 Lakh rupees come under EWS category. EWS status certificate should be from an Officer not below the rank of Tahsildar of the State Govt and Union Territory.

  16. 4.5% of OBC vacancies are to be filled by Minorities. To avail the benefit of reservation, the person should be belonging to Minority Community as defined in Section 2 ( C ) of the National Commission for Minorities Act 1992 and his caste/community should have been included in the notified list of OBCs. 

  17. Quantum of reservation in Direct Recruitment:

  1. By open competition:  SC 15%, ST 7.5%, OBC 27 including 4.5% for Minorities &, EWS 10% 

  2. Other than open competition: SC 16.66%, ST 7.5%, OBC 25.84% & EWS 10%

  1. Quantum of reservation in Promotions:


By selection with in Group B,C,D

SC           15%,

 ST          7.5%, 

OBC        NIL 

EWS        NIL


By selection from Group-B to Group-A


By non-selection( seniority-cum-suitability)

  1. Reservation is post based. Not on vacancy bases.

Example for Post Based Reservation:

Sanctioned posts = 100

Reservation for SC = 100 x 15% =             15

Reservation for ST = 100 x 7.5% = 7.5 ( ie 8 )

Reservation for OBC = 100 x 27% =          27

Total reservation = 50 (15+8+27)

Un-reserved posts = 50

Available SC employees on roll = 10 

Available ST employees on roll = 5

Available OBC employees on roll = 20

Available UR = 40

Total available on roll = 75 (10+5+20+40)

Vacancies = 25 (100-75)

SC   requirement = 15 -10 =  5

ST   requirement =    8- 5   = 3

OBC requirement = 27-20 = 7

UR requirement =    50 -40 = 10

Category wise requirement = 5+3+7+10 = 25


Note: Un-reserved vacancies means ‘ No reservation’ for these posts. They are filled on merit or on seniority. Anybody ie SC / ST /OBC / UR who is in merit or in senior can be appointed against unreserved vacancies.

  1. The total reservation for all categories should not exceed 50% in each cadre. Cadre means grade/Level. For example Jr Clerks, Sr Clerks, OS & Ch OS are four separate cadres for the purpose of reservations in clerical cadres. 

  2. In direct recruitment, the reserved category candidates who are selected on the same standard as applied to General Candidates will not be adjusted against reserved vacancies.

  3.  Only when he/she avails the relaxations in age limit, experience, qualification, permitted number of chances etc will be adjusted against reserved vacancies.   

  4. Separate rosters registers should be maintained for DR, Promotion, LDCE and GDCE.  

  5. Reservation rules are not applicable to deputation. 

  6. No reservation for single post cadre. The vacancy should be filled by seniority or merit as the case may be.

  7. The unfilled posts of SC/ST/OBC should not be de-reserved. ( ie should not be converted to UR)

  8. Such posts should be carried forward to next recruitment year. The same rule applies to promotions also.

  9. However, posts can be exchanged between SC and ST if the vacancy could be filled due to non-availability of candidates of that particular community ( ie SC or ST) in the third recruitment year. 

  10. At any given point of time , the rule of maximum 50% quota should be followed on the cadre as a whole and not on the basis of individual recruitment where it may happen that all posts may fall to the share of either SC or ST or OBC due to carry forward rule for unfilled vacancies.

  11. The candidate appointed on compassionate grounds should be shown against the appropriate roster point as per his community i.e SC against SC, ST against ST, OBC against OBC and UR against UR.

  12. The employees who are rendered surplus and absorbed in alternative posts should be shown against the appropriate roster point as per his community ie SC against SC, ST against ST, and UR against UR. If there is no SC/ST point vacant, such surplus staff should be booked against the UR point because we should keep the surplus staff waiting for an alternative appointment for want of SC/ST vacancy.

  13. The candidates who are appointed against Sports/Cultural/Scouts & Guides quota should not be shown against SC/ST/OBC reservation points because their selection for appointment is purely on merit in their respective fields.

  14. In PBR system if a vacancy arises in the cadre due to Transfer/Promotion/Retirement/Death etc of SC/ST/OBC employee, that vacancy should be filled only by SC/ST/OBC candidate/employee.

  15. The PBR system is applicable in promotions from Group-C to Group-B, within Group-B and Group-B to Group-A .

  16. Vertical Reservation means reservation for  SC/ST/OBC/UR/EWS.

Horizontal Reservation means reservation for  PH/Minority/Ex-servicemen.

  1. UR = UR(merit) +PH(merit) +EWS((merit) + Ex-servicemen(merit)

SC = SC + PH(SC) + Ex-Servicemen (SC)

ST = ST + PH (ST) + Ex-Servicemen (ST)

OBC = OBC + Minority (OBC) + PH (OBC)  + Ex-servicemen(OBC)

  1. Reservation for PH candidates: According to Right of persons with disabilities Act 2016, 4% reservation in recruitments and promotions should be provided to physically handicapped persons who are suffering from the following:

  1. Blindness and low vision

  2. Deaf and hard hearing

  3. Locomotors disability (including cerebral palsy, Leprosy cured, dwarfism, acid attack victims and muscular dystrophy).

  4. Autism intellectual disability, specific learning disability and mental illness.

  5. Multiple disabilities from among (a) to (d) above including deaf and blindness

Note: The minimum disability should be 40%.

Distribution of 4% reservation is as under:

For category (a) above – 1%

For Category (b) above – 1%

For Category (c ) above- 1%

For categories (d) & (e) above – 1%

Railways can exempt any post/cadre from the above reservations for PwD candidates.