ROCE - Management Accounting for LDCE
· Full form is Return On Capital Employed
· It is most important Ratio among all the Financial Ratios
· ROCE = Return /Capital Employed x 100
· Expressed in Percentage. Example Return is 200 rupees against the capital 2000 rupees employed. ROCE is 200/2000 x 100 = 10 %.
· Return = Net Profit + or - Non Trading adjustments + Interest on Long term debts + Provision for tax - Interest/Dividend from non trade investments
· Capital Employed = Equity share capital + Reserves & Surpluses + Preference share capital + Debentures & other long term loan - Misc Expenditure & loss - Non trade investments.
ROCE in Indian Railways
· Para 511 of Indian Railway Finance & Administrate Code mentions Return on Capital.
· Return on Capital = Percentage of Revenue Surplus/Net Receipts to Capital at charge and Investments from Capital Fund.
· Revenue Surplus/Net Receipts = Total Revenue Receipts - Total Revenue Expenditure
· Since element of Dividends is not there (from 2017-18 onwards due to merger of Railway Budget with General Budget), the Net Receipts and the Revenue Surplus are one and same.
· Total Revenue Receipts = Gross Earnings (X, Y & Z) minus Suspense
· Total Revenue Expenditure = Gross Working Expenses ( OWE + Appropriation to DRF & Pension Fund) minus Suspense.