Railway Accounts Department Examinations

Showing posts with label LDCE. Show all posts
Showing posts with label LDCE. Show all posts

Thursday, December 2, 2021

LDCE ACCOUNTS QUESTION PAPERS OF NWR 2021

 

NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY

Accounts Department

Limited Departmental Competitive Examination (LDCE) for selection to the post of Assistant

Financial Advisor (Group ‘B’ Service-30% quota)

 

 

 

PAPER-I

 

 

Date: 20/11/2021

 

Time Allowed: 3 HoursMaximum Marks: 150

This paper contains three sections viz. A, B & C.  All sections have to be answered. Each section carries equal marks.

 

[Note: (1) Do not write your Roll No./Name anywhere in the answer book. Write your Name, Designation, and Roll No only in the assigned space in the file leaf only. If the candidate writes Name / Designation/ Roll No, or any symbol / indication in the answer book, the candidature shall be disqualified. (2) Answer to Q.3 has to be given in English only and answers to other questions have to be written in either in English or Hindi. (3) In case of any discrepancy between the English and Hindi versions of this question paper, English version will be treated as final.]

 

Section-A: General Knowledge, English and Official Language Policy                                     [50 marks]

 

Section-B: General Principles of Government Accounting and Auditing with special reference

To the Railways   [50 marks]

 

Section-C: Books and Budgeting including Traffic Book   [50 marks]

 

 

 

Section-A

General Knowledge, English and Official Language Policy

 

 

Q.1             Write the full form of the following abbreviations:                                                                                               (5 marks)

                     (i) UNICEF        (ii) UPSC           (iii) GDP            (iv)  PFRDA         (v)  UIDAI

 

Q.2             Write short notes on any two of the following:     

                                                                                               (10 marks)

i. Election Commission

ii. President Rule

iii. NITI Aayog

 

Q.3 (A)       Write an essay (about 300 words) on any one of the following:                                                                         (20 marks)

 

                    1. Freedom struggle of India

                    2. Unity in diversity

                    3. Honesty is the best policy

 

(B)     Write the antonyms of the following:                                                                                                                        (5 marks)            

                  1. Ancient      2.  Abundant     3. Conceal       4. Ugly         5. Frequent

 

Q.4          What is the Official language policy of the Union of India? Give salient features of the

                  Official Languages Act 1963.                                                                                                                                         (10 marks)

 

 

 

Section-B

 

General Principles of Government Accounting and Auditing with special reference to the Railways

 

 

Attempt any two of the following; each question carries 25 marks:

 

                  Q.5   a. What do you mean by ‘statutory audit’                                                                                                                         (7 marks)

                           b. Write short notes on the following:                                                                                                                               (18 marks)

                                (1) Draft Para

                                (2) Special Letter

                                (3) Public Accounts Committee (PAC)

 

                  Q.6   Distinguish between the following:                                                                                                                                        (25 marks)

                           1. Originating earning and apportioned earning.

                           2. Write-back and write-off

                           3. Consolidated fund and contingent fund

                           4. Demands payable and Demands recoverable

                           5. Block Account and Loan Account

 

                  Q.7   Give a detail of the system of maintenance and compilation of Railway Accounts.                                                       (25 marks)

 

 

 

 

Section-C

 

Books and Budgeting including Traffic Book

 

     Attempt any two of the following; each question carries 25 marks:

 

       Q.8     What is Traffic Book? How is it posted and what purpose does it serve?                                                                         (25 marks)

 

 

       Q.9     (A)  What is the purpose of Operating Suspense Account?                                                                                                  (7 marks)

 

                   (B) Briefly discuss the operation and accounting of the following Suspense heads.

 

(a)    Cheques & Bills, (b) Remittance into bank,(c) Purchase Suspense                                                                       (18 marks)

 

      Q.10   Write short notes on the following:   (25 marks)   

                                          

i.   Outcome budget

                  ii.  Performance budget

 iii. Zero based budgeting

                  iv. Accrual accounting

                  v.  Transfer transaction

 

 

                                                                                                    NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY

                                                                                                         Accounts Department

                                                  Limited Departmental Competitive Examination (LDCE) for selection to the post of Assistant

                                                                                         Financial Advisor (Group ‘B’ Service-30% quota)      

 

 

 

                                                                                                                  PAPER-II

 

 

Date: 21/11/2021

 

Time Allowed: 3 HoursMaximum Marks: 150

This paper contains three sections viz. A, B & C.  All sections have to be answered. Each section carries equal marks.

 

[Note: (1) Do not write your Roll No./Name anywhere in the answer book. Write your Name, Designation, and Roll No only in the assigned space in the file leaf only. If the candidate writes Name / Designation/ Roll No, or any symbol / indication in the answer book, the candidature shall be disqualified. (2) Answer to all questions have to be written in either in English or Hindi. (3) In case of any discrepancy between the English and Hindi versions of this question paper, English version will be treated as final.]

 

Section-A: Financial Justification for Expenditure and Traffic Costing                                                    [50 marks]

 

Section-B: Management Accounting                                                                                                            [50 marks]

 

Section-C: Traffic Accounting and Statistics & Establishment   [50 marks]

                                                             OR

                    General Expenditure Accounts and Workshop & Stores Accounts

 

 

 

Section-A

Financial Justification for Expenditure and Traffic Costing

 

Answer any two questions: (each question carries 25 marks)

 

Q.1     What are the points to be kept in mind while examining the following in finance:

 

a.       Land licensing proposal, b. Station to Station Rates, c. Detailed Estimate,

d.    Crossing Station, e.  Variation Statement                                                                                                                 (25 marks)

 

Q.2      Describe the methodology adopted by the Indian Railways to work out the costing for Freight

             And Coaching Services                                                                                                                                                                          (25 marks)

 

Q.3      Name and describe the various sources/ funds available for financing Railway Projects                                                          (25 marks)

 

 

 

 

Section-B

Management Accounting

 

 

Attempt any two questions: (each question carries 25 marks)

 

Q.4       Write short notes on the following:                                                                                                  (25 marks)

              (a) Debt Equity Ratio, (b) Marginal Costing, (c) Opportunity Cost,

              (d) Liquidity Ratio, (e) Working Capital

 

Q.5     a) Bring out the difference among partnership firm, joint venture firm and consortium of firms.                                              (15 marks)

 

           b) Describe DCF method of project appraisal.                                                                                                                                        (10 marks)

 

Q.6     What is the difference between Internal Check and Internal Audit? Give a brief description of scope and

            Objective of Internal Audit.                                                                                                                                                                       (25 marks)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section-C

 Traffic Accounting and Statistics & Establishment

 

 

Attempt any two questions: (each question carries 25 marks)

 

Q.7      Write short notes on the following:

 

(a)   Accounts Office Balance Sheet, (b) Traffic Suspense, (c) Cash Remittance Note,                                 

             (d) Cash in Transit, (e) Error Sheet                                                                                                                                           (25 marks)

 

Q.8      Write short notes on the following:

 

(a)   Permanent Negotiating Machinery, (b) Child Care Leave, (c) National Holiday Allowance,

(d) Night Duty Allowance, (e) Leave Encashment                                                                                                                 (25 marks)

 

Q.9      Write short notes on the following:

 

(a)   GTKM and NTKM, (b) Statement no.6A, (c) Statement no.7A,

(d)  Statement no.7C, (e) Route Kilometer and Track Kilometer                                                                                         (25 marks)

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                         OR

 

                                                  General Expenditure Accounts and Workshop & Stores Accounts

 

 

Attempt any two questions: (each question carries 25 marks)

 

Q.10     Write short notes on the following:

 

(a)   Excess over estimates, (b) Completion Report, (c) Final Location survey,

(d)  Vitiation of Contract, (e) Price Variation Clause                                                                                                             (25 marks)

 

Q.11       What is inventory management? Why it is necessary and how it is being managed on Indian

                Railways?                                                                                                                                                                                     (25 marks)

 

Q.12       Why it is necessary to operate a suspense account to book the expenditure in a Workshop?

                Describe briefly how such a suspense account is operated.                                                                                              (25 marks)

 

 

 

****

Tuesday, April 20, 2021

Fixed Cost and its importance in BEP

 

Fixed Cost & its importance in BEP

 

·         Meaning:  A cost does not change with an increase or decrease in the Goods produced.

 

·         In General, companies can have two types of costs, i.e., Fixed Costs and Variable Costs.

 

·         Also called as Indirect cost or Overhead costs.

 

·         Examples:  Lease Rentals, Salaries, Insurance, Taxes, Interest expense, Depreciation etc.

 

·         All Sunk costs are Fixed Costs.  But, all fixed costs are not sunk costs..

 

·         Sunk cost: Money that has already been spent and which cannot be recovered.  Examples are Machinery Cost, Lease expense, etc.

 

·         A fixed cost per unit is always variable; Whereas Variable cost per unit is always fixed.

 

·         Segregation of Total Costs into fixed Costs and Variable costs helps the Management to decide the scale of Production and Breakeven analysis. 

 

·         Example: A company Produces Pens.  Their fixed costs are Rs. 10000 and Variable costs are Rs. 10 per Pen.  Find the Total cost for 100 Pens and 200 Pens.

100 Units

Costs

No of Pens

Rate per Unit

Total

Fixed

100

100

10000

Variable Costs

100

10

1000

Total costs

100

110

11000

Selling Price

100

120

12000

Profit

100

10

1000

 

200 Units:

Costs

No of Pens

Rate per Unit

 

Fixed

200

50

10000

Variable Costs

200

10

2000

Total

200

60

12000

Selling price

200

120

24000

Profit

200

60

12000

 

·         From the above, the Fixed Cost per Unit is changed from Rs. 100 to Rs.50 when Production was increased from 100 units to 200 Units.  Whereas, Variable cost is remain fixed though production was increased from 100 units to 200 units.

 

So, when change in the Production:

 

·         Fixed cost per unit is variable  (though Total Fixed cost is fixed)

 

·         Variable cost per unit is fixed. (though Total Variable cost is variable)

 

·         The segregation of Total costs into Fixed Costs and Variable costs helps the firms to analyze the breakeven analysis. (Where there is no profit, no loss) and increase their profit capacity.

BEP –Break Even Point = Fixed Costs / Sales Price per Unit – Variable Cost per unit

·         In above example 100 units production level, BEP is 10000/120 – 10 = 91 Units.  

 

·         That means at the point of 91 units, there is no profit or no loss.

 

At 91 units

 

Costs

No of Pens

Rate per Unit

 

Fixed

91

109.90

10000

Variable Costs

91

10

910

Total

91

119.90

10911

Selling price

91

120

10920

Profit

91

0.10

9

 

Profit Rs.9 is almost negligible.  Hence at the production of 91 units, there is no profit, and there is no loss.   So Break Even Point (BEP) is 91 units

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