Railway Accounts Department Examinations

Showing posts with label Introduction. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Introduction. Show all posts

Thursday, September 28, 2023

Statistics in Railways - An Introduction


Statistics in Railways - An Introduction 


  1. Manual of Statistical Instruction Volume 1

  2. Statistics Manual 1 - Introduction 

Origin of the word Statistics:  German “Statistik” means Description of a State or a Country

Definition: The discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation of Data. 


  1. Numerically expressed 

  2. Aggregate of facts 

  3. Systematically collecting the Data 

  4. Should be comparable to each other. 

  5. Data are collected for a planned purpose. 


Statistics in Indian Railways: 

  • Statistics Organization Incharge - Director Statistics & Economics, who works under the control of Member Finance in Railway Board.  

  • Statistical Officer is incharge at Zonal Railways, who works under the control of PFA  

History of Indian Railways: 

  • Official Use - Printed triennially (every 3 years). 

  • Sale to the Public - Published Sexennially (every 6 years)

  • From 1969 onwards - Published decennially (every 10 years) 

Factors - Railway Statistics: The Railway Statistics are based on the followin factors: 

  1. Quantity - Expressed in number of tonnes and passengers transported and earnings derived. 

  2. Distance - Expressed in Kilometres 

  3. Duration - In Hours and Days 

  4. Service - In Trains, Vehicles, Wagons & Engines 

  • The above Primary Units are linked together to express in Composite items called Fundamental Units.  That is Fundamental Unit = Linking of Primary Units. Examples are: 

  1. Tonne Kilometres ( Fundamental Unit) - Tonnes & Kilometres ( Primary Units) 

  2. Passenger Kilometres (Fundamental Unit)  - Passengers & Kilometres (Primary Units  

  • Derivating Units: Relationship that exists between two sets of Primary Units or Fundamental Units are called as Derivative Units. Examples are: 

Derivative Unit = Primary/Fundamental Unit + Primary/Fundamental Unit

Derivative Units

Primary / Fundamental Units

Primary/Fundamental Units

Earnings Per Passenger 

Passenger Earnings (Primary)

Passengers carried (Primary) 

Earnings per Passenger per Kilometre 

Passenger Kilometres (Fundamental)

Passenger Earnings (Primary) 

Average distance travelled by Passenger or Lead

PKM-Passenger KiloMetres (Fundamental) 

Number of Passengers (Primary) 

Average load in Wagons per Train

Wagon KiloMetres (Fundamental) 

Goods Train Kilometres (Fundamental) 

Principal Heads - Statistics in Indian Railways are grouped as under: 


Principal Heads / Groups

Consists of : 


Economic & Financial Statistics

Tri-monthly approximate figures of earnings (every 10 days), Traffic handled in the shape of passengers booked, monthly statistics of tonnage lifted and wagons loaded and of revenue and expenditure


Transportation Statistics

No of trains run, Train KMs, Shunting KMs, Wagon/Vehicle KMs, Engine KMs etc


Commercial Statistics

No of Passengeers /Tonnes carried, PKM, NTKM, Average Lead, Average fare/Rate, Claims etc


Rolling Stock & Workshop Repair Statistics

Repair & Maintenance of Rolling Stock, Engine failures, Hot Boxes, Outturn etc 


Administrative Statistics

No of Staff, Sick days, Accidents, Pay Scales and Physical Statistics like Route KMs, No of Railway Stations, Gradients, curvature of the P.Way.