Railway Accounts Department Examinations

Showing posts with label Rolling Stock Code. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Rolling Stock Code. Show all posts

Friday, September 8, 2023

Traffic Accounts - Worked Lines - 31st Chapter of Accounts Code Vol. 2


Traffic Accounts - Worked Lines - 31st Chapter of Accounts Code Vol. 2 


What is Worked Lines?   


Answer: The Worked Lines, that are 

·        Constructed at the cost of Branch Line companies, Private Companies, JV - Joint Venture companies, Local Bodies, State Governments etc (PPP- Public Private Partnership) 


·        Worked by the Main Line System i.e., Indian Railways 


  • Agreements (entered with the above bodies) -  Basis for Working as well as the apportionment of the revenue & expenditure of such Worked Lines. 


  • A copy of the said Agreement with main features should be maintained in the Accounts Office and updated for reference if required. The features are:   

·        The Gross revenue of each Worked Line 

·         Percentage or proportionate share or actuals to be recovered from each line as working expenses, 

·        The rebate to be allowed under certain conditions, 

·        Principles of apportionment, 

·        GST provisions etc, 


Apportionment between the Main Lines i.e., Indian Railways and the Worked Lines:


  • Coaching Revenue includes 

·        Fares and freight charges proper for carrying the various kinds of Coaching Traffic  and 

·        Other special charges such as Pilgrim tax, Poll tax or GST and Cartage charges, etc.  

  • The Taxes and terminal charges - if leviable and included in fares 

·        Creditable to the parties concerned 

·        Excluded from the fares before apportionment.   

  • Cartage charges: 

·        Not payable to the Worked Lines; 

·        Deducted from the Freight before apportionment.  

  •  Special Charges - Excluded:

·        Those that do not pertain to Worked Lines are levied for specified purposes unconnected with the Worked Lines and should be excluded from the fares & freight before apportionment. If specifically mentioned in the Railway Board guidelines or explicitly mentioned in the Agreement, the same is Included in the Fares & Freight.    

  • Undercharges - The Correct amount to be apportioned regardless of the amount collected. 

  • Overcharges - No credit to be afforded to Worked Lines. So it should be excluded before the apportionment.  

  • Penalty/Clerkage charges  - As is where is basis. That means Credited to the Main Line Station or Worked Lines Station as the recovery is done at Main Line Station or Worked Line Station respectively.  So no apportionment. 


Apportionment of Carried Over Traffic: 

  • If within the Zonal Railway  - Based on the Agreement 

  • In the absence of the above, either Matrix in CAS - Central Apportionment System or through FOIS - Freight Operations Information System as provided by the CRIS 


  • As per the guidelines of Para 868 of Finance Code Volume 1 and Para 2324 of Accounts Code Volume 2   

Items to be deducted before apportionment: 

  1. The Taxes and Terminal charges 
  2. The Cartage charges  
  3. Overcharges
  4. All Special charges (which do not pertain to Worked Lines) are levied for specified purposes unconnected with the Worked Lines.   


Other Traffic:

  • The following items which are creditable to the Worked Lines - should be picked up from the Station Balance Sheets of Worked Line Stations only 


Coaching Traffic:  


1.     Left Luggage, Wharfage & Demurrage  

2.     Platform Tickets 

3.     Excess in Booking 

4.     Telegraph Revenue 

5.     Special Debits taken by Station in the Coaching Balance Sheets, but not accounted in the returns submitted to the Accounts Office  


Goods Traffic: 


6.               Demurrage & Wharfage 

7.               Special Debits taken by Station in the Goods Balance Sheets, but not accounted for in the returns submitted to the Accounts Office  

  • Items debitable to the Worked lines, that is, items of credit taken by stations of the Entire System in their Coaching or Goods Balance sheets in respect of: 

1.     Overcharge sheets pertaining to Station's outstandings 

2.     Previous Debits withdrawn

3.     Reversal of Credits., and 

4.     Re-booking etc.,   


Payments to Worked Lines: 

  • Statement prepared every Month
  • Net Revenue = Gross Revenue minus share of working expenses
  • Rounding off to the nearest rupee
  • Passed on to the Books Section (of the Accounts Office) for arranging Payment to the Worked Lines  


Advance Payments: 

  • In some cases, Advance payments is allowed. 
  • A certain percentage of Advance payment of Revenue to the Worked Lines
  • Quarterly or Half Yearly 
  • Actual Revenue on that date plus Approximate Revenue for the rest of the period will be based for calculating the Advance payments. 
  • Necessary adjustment between Actual and approximate figures- Should be made at the time of the yearly final payments, when actual Revenue for the whole year are known.   


Test Check: 

  • Very difficult for automatic reconciliation to prove the accuracy of Worked Lines accounts.
  • The important one is compiling Worked lines accounts taking lakhs of transactions in each month
  • Hence, a Test check of Worked Lines Accounts is necessary. 
  • The Accounts prepared by the Staff should be subjected to a rigorous test check by the Supervising staff as well as by the staff compiling the Accounts


Note: The Word Revenue is used in place of Earnings.  




Saturday, January 21, 2023

Difference between M&P and T&P

Difference between M&P and T&P


Source: Para 1019 & 1020 of Rolling Stock Code







M&P stands for Machinery & Plant


T&P stands for Tools & Plant


A Machine that remains stationary nd immovable (Job comes to Machine) and all Vehicles (all types)


An item that is movable (Machine comes to Job)


Examples: All immovable Machines, Staff cars, Lorries, Buses, Ambulances, Road Mobile cranes,  etc


Examples: Pneumatic drills, power saws, tools and plants such as jigs & fixtures. Small tools & equipment. Upkeep of Office such as Furniture, computers, printers etc 


Costing more than Rs. 50 Lakhs and Vehicles irrespective of its cost  processed through M&P Portal (maintained by Railway Board)


Costing up to Rs. 50 Lakhs each - (except Vehicles) can be sanctioned by Zonal Railways under GM’s powers


Costing up to Rs. 10 Lakhs referred as T&P and procured by Zonal Railways 


Charged to Capital (Plan Head 41 - M&P)


Charged to Revenue


Key Points for MCQ

  1. M&P stands for Machinery & Plant 
  2. T&P stands for Tools & Plant 
  3. M&P - Job comes to Machine
  4. T&P - Machine comes to Job 
  5. M&P - costing more than Rs. 50 Lakhs processed through M&P Portal
  6. All Road vehicles treated as M&P irrespective of Value and processed through M&P Portal
  7. M&P portal maintained by Railway Board 
  8. M&P - costing less than Rs. 50 Lakhs - processed by Zonal Railways under GM’s powers
  9. T&P - costing up to Rs. 10 Lakhs charged to Revenue
  10. M&P charged to Capital (Plan Head 41) 


Friday, November 6, 2020

On cost charges in Workshops

 On cost charges in Workshops

  • Meaning: 

  1. The expenditure which cannot be directly allocated to the product or service and

  2.  can only be apportioned on some logical basis

  • Another name is Overheads

  • On Cost charges - 3 types

  1. Shop On Cost (SOC)  - comprising Labor and Materials

  1. General On Cost (GOC - comprising Labor and Materials

  1. Administrative On Costs (AOC) .  Also called as Proforma On Cost (POC)

  • On costs are always expressed and levied as a percentage of Direct labour including incentive Bonus and overtime paid in that work order.

  •  Annual Budgeting is required. 

  • Shop On cost and General On cost need to be charged to all types of works executed at the workshop irrespective of their nature.

  • Quarterly Review: 

  1. A review of efficiency of overhead percentages should be made quarterly with reference to total actual expenditure incurred vis-à-vis that recovered at the overhead percentages.

  2. A comparison of these actual overheads with recoveries made through estimated percentages will reflect over/under charges for the month under different overheads

  3. If these are found unduly large, the percentages are revised without waiting for the Annual On cost Budget so as to minimize the difference between the actual and the predetermined percentage.

  4. The Under / Over charges at the end of the year should be less than 5% so as to make On cost budget realistic and the same must be cleared through the final Heads before the end of the Financial Year.

  5. Senior scale/JA grade executive officer in charge of Production Control Organization should review the trend of on-cost budget every quarter, jointly with workshop Accounts Officer

  6. The outcome of this review in the form of management summary shall bring to the knowledge of Chief Workshop Manager for the management review and ‘on-cost’ control exercise

Shop On Cost (SOC)

  • All on cost incurred within a Shop or Section.  Examples are 

  1. Wages, overtime etc. of Shop apprentices, JEs, unskilled labour. 

  2. Leave pay, idle time, sick hurt and holiday pay, travelling allowances and arrear pay, and pay allowed to men on volunteer duty or part-taking in sports.

  3. Shop scrap (credit)

  4. Stationery and forms

  5. Defective and spoilt work, in the case of experimental work

  6. Power chargers, whether electric pneumatic, gas or hydraulic which can be directly allocated to shops.

  7. Wages of operators of automatic machines, not otherwise allocated

  8. Wages, overtime etc. of men employed on mechanical transport in the shop

  9. Wages, overtime etc. of all general labour in shops including those employed on transport.

  10. Hammer driving in shops

  11. Small differences between muster rolls and time sheets

  12. Consumable stores (Lubrication oil, waste, sponges, etc.)

  13. Charges for coal and coke in the smithies

  14. Lighting charges in shops

  15. Fine creditable to works

  16. Suspension allowances

  17. Wages etc. of shop messengers

  18. Working expenses of crane and shunting engines, lorries, autotrucks, traversers etc.

  19. Small tools for shop use

General On Cost (GOC)

  •  Denotes all On cost charges common with more than one Shop. Examples are:

  1. Wages and allowances of staff of Yard shop

  2. Wages & allowances of Workshop apprentices not attached to shops. 

  3. Freight charges .

  4. Electrical power.

  5. Hydraulic and pneumatic power and gas

  6. Replacement of articles stolen or lost

  7. Expenditure on apprentices’ school and hostel

  8. Working expenses of crane and shunting engines, lorries, auto trucks, traversers etc.,

  9. Working expenses of central works pumping plant.

  10. Experimental work

  11. Water charges

  12. Sanitary arrangements

  13. Messengers’ wages, uniforms etc.

  14. Consumable stores for general use

  15. Maintenance of mess rooms

  16. Yard lighting.

Administrative On Cost  or Proforma On Cost

  •  Charged  -   percentage of direct labour  - to RSP works and all works done for outsiders. 

  • Profit will also be charged for work done for outsiders.

  • To  make competitive, GM can waive whole charges or reduce with concurrence of PFA.