Railway Accounts Department Examinations

Showing posts with label Journal. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Journal. Show all posts

Monday, July 20, 2020

Differences between Journal and Ledger

Difference Between Journal and Ledger (with Comparison Chart ...

2016 Appendix3 exam – Book keeping paper-5 Marks

Differences between

The Book where all transactions are recorded
The Ledger, where all the journal entries are classified account wise and posted.
2. Nature
Subsidiary Book
Principal Book
3. Another name
Book of Original Entry and thus precedes the Ledger.
Book of Secondary Entry and prepared after the Journal
4. Recording
Account  wise
5. Process
6. Narration
Not required
Not required
7. Base for
It is the base for preparation of Ledger
It is the base for preparation of Trial Balance, then Final Accounts

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

General Books & Subsidiary Books

General Books & Subsidiary Books


Source: chapter III of Accounts Code Click here


·         The first and foremost function of the Accounts Dept is "Keeping the accounts of the railway in accordance with the prescribed rules".   Clickfor article on Functions of the Accounts Dept


·         That is, General Books such as Daily Cash Book, Monthly Cash Book, Journal & Ledger and various Subsidiary Books.


·         Compilation of Accounts    - The following are the duties of the Accounts Officer:


1.       Collect and bring to account all the receipts and disbursements of Unit, i.e., Division, Railway (CO7s - Cash Order 7 for out goings & MCRs - Misc. Cash Receipts for Receipts)

2.       A) To transfer to other accounts circles the items pertaining to them which originate in his circle and  B) to adjust in his books of account the items of expenditure or receipts pertaining to his own circle and transferred to him by other Accounts officers; (Through RJVs - Revenue Journal Vouchers & CJVs - Capital Journal Vouchers)

3.       To make up a detailed account of his accounts circle monthly;  ( Monthly Account Current)

4.       To make up a detailed account of his circle for each year. (Annual Account Current)

5.       To prepare relevant financial reports for management information and action. (Appropriation Accounts, P & L Account, Balance Sheet etc)


Accounting Transactions

Two distinct headings

Cash transactions

Book Adjustments

Sub Headings





Four Pillars for entire Accounting transactions

CO 7




Code used in the documents







General Books :


These are the essential records for compiling the monthly and Annual Accounts.



                       I.               General Cash Book or Daily abstract of cash transactions


·         Form No. 304

·         To bring into all cash transactions of Division/Unit.

·         Posted daily.

·         A voucher (CO7 or MCR) duly signed by an Accounts Officer - support of every entry in it.

·         Balanced daily and reconciled with that in the Cashiers cash book.

·         It should be checked and signed by the officer in-charge of the section.


Daily Cash Book



Debit side

Credit side





Station Remittances

Cash check sheets

Debits in various bills passed


Receipts other than Stations




Credits in various Bills passed




Unpaid amounts remitted by cashier

Lists of unpaid wages




                  II.            Monthly Cash Book:


·          Posted daily from the totals in the Daily abstract of Cash transactions.

·         Kept in two parts  A. Debits (Receipts)  B. Credits (Disbursements)

·         It should be totaled after the transactions of the last day of the month have been posted.

·         The totals under the Heads RIB - Remittances Into Bank for Receipts and C & B - Cheques & Bills for payments should be reconciled with the statements received from the Banks.


                   III.         Journal

·          The transactions which do not involve cash  - should be recorded in the Journl.

·         Each entry in the journal should be supported by Journal Voucher (JV) duly signed by an Accounts Officer.

·         JVs, after preparation by the concerned sections and sent to the Books section for incorporation in the Accounts.

·         JVs should bear separate serial numbers distinct from that cash vouchers

·         Each journal entry should be supported by a narration giving detailed reasons for making adjustment.

·         Totalling of the Journal

·         Add cash totals to the Journal.


             IV.               LEDGER

·         The closing totals of the journal should be posted in the Ledger under various heads of accounts.

·         Also shows the progressive balances under those heads, the end of each accounting period.


Subsidiary Books:

In addition to the General Books, the following subsidiary records should be maintained.

                                                        I.            Registers of Earnings

                                                      II.            Revenue Allocation Registers

                                                    III.            Registers of Works

                                                    IV.            Suspense Registers ( DP, MAR, Loans & Advances, Deposits, Stores suspense, WMS, Traffic etc)


Saturday, September 29, 2018

Differences between Journal & Ledger

Book Keeping  - 5 marks question asked in 1995 & 2016
Differences between
 1. Book of Original entry
1. Book of Final entry
2. It is a Subsidiary Book
2. It is a Principal Book
3.  It is prepared from the  vouchers, receipts, bills, etc
3. It is prepared from the Journal.
4. Transactions are recorded in the journal in chronological order.
4. Transactions are posted in the ledger in classified form.
5.Narration is required
5. Narration not required
6.There is no scope for balancing the Journal
6. Balancing the Ledger is must
7. Journal is the Basis for Ledger.
7. Ledger is the basis for Final Accounts i.e., Profit & Loss Account and Balance Sheet.
8. In journal, ledger folio (L.F.) is written.
8. In ledger,  journal folio (J.F.) is written.
9. Recording of the transactions in the journal is called journalizing.
9. Recording of transactions in the ledger is called posting.