Railway Accounts Department Examinations

Showing posts with label structure of accounts. Show all posts
Showing posts with label structure of accounts. Show all posts

Friday, August 14, 2020

Finance Accounts and Capital & Revenue Accounts


Finance Accounts and Capital & Revenue Accounts

·         Indian Railways is a Departmental Commercial Organization.  So not only secure essential requirements of Commercial Accounts, but also conforms to the Government Accounts. So it prepares Capital & Revenue Accounts and Finance Accounts to comply the Commercial Accounts and Government Accounts respectively

Commercial Accounts:

·         Also called as Capital and Revenue Accounts.


·         Recorded in such a way;

1.       How its Capital has been utilised (Balance Sheet)

2.       How it (IR) stands in relation to its Debtors and Creditors (Balance Sheet)

3.       Whether it (IR) is gaining or losing (Profit & Loss A/c)

4.       Whether the sources of its gains or losses

5.       Whether it is solvent or insolvent+


·         So, the Accounts of Railway presented in such a form as to facilitate a review of Railways as a Commercial undertaking.


·         To be included in Annual Report of IR


·         Sources :

1.       Revenue  - Revenue Allocation Register (RAR)

2.       Register of Earnings/Revenue 

3.       Registers of Capital, DRF, DF etc  - Works


·         Due date : 15th September or any other date prescribed by the Railway Board from year to year

·         Financial Results cannot be gauged correctly unless transactions recorded separately for Revenue and Capital


·         Loan A/c  - Assets created out of Capital only


·         Block A/c - Assets created out of all sources of finance (Capital + DRF + DF + RRSK + RSF)


·         Consists of : Statements of

1.       Authorised Capital

2.       Stock

3.       Loans, Debentures

4.       Receipts & Expenditure of Capital A/c

5.       Capital expenditure details for the year

6.       Capital A/c

7.       Revenue A/c

8.       Distribution of Earnings/Revenue and working expenses of worked lines

9.       GWE - Gross Working Expenses - Summary

10.   GWE - Gross Working Expenses - Details

11.   Earnings/Revenue

12.   Outstanding Earnings/Revenue (Traffic Suspense & DR)

13.   Net Revenue A/c

14.   DRF A/c

15.   Erstwhile Demands 1 & 2 / Major Head 3001

16.   Development Fund A/c (DF)

Government Accounts:

Government Accounts are kept in 3 Parts - Flow Chart

Government Accounts



  ·         Also known as Finance A/cs

·         Duly classified as per prescribed rules of Government

·         Object: Systematic record of all Receipts & Expenditure classified under certain appropriated headings.

·         Railway Fund:


1.       Though the Railway transactions form the part of Consolidated Fund, Contingency Fund & Public Account, they are accounted in the pro forma "Railway Fund"

2.       In the books of CAS - Central Accounting Section, RBI/Nagpur


·         Extra Railway Transactions:  Railway Audit expenditure  - booked in Railway Accounts for convenience purpose, though they do not pertain to Railway Revenue & Expenditure.


Structure of Booking of expenditure / earnings in Indian Railways












Major Head




Indian Railways

Commercial Lines -

 Working Expenses







Sub Major Head




General Superintendence

& Services






MH -Minor Head




Financial Management






Sub Head

( Subordinate Head)










Detailed Head










Object Head

( PU -Primary Unit)





House Rent  Allowance


·         Final Allocation / classification of HRA of PFA - 03-0211-04


·         Note:  Still, allocation structure aligns with erstwhile Demand No. 03 - for Sub Major Head 01 -" General Superintendence & Services"


·         Monthly Account Current /Annual Account Current - complies the Finance A/cs


·         Railway Accounts further classified into 1. Commercial Lines  2. Strategic Lines


·         Strategic lines exists in 4 Zonal Railways.   They are NR, NFR, NWR & WR


·         Recoveries (of overpayments in last year) - shown as Earnings/Revenue in Current year.


·         However, recoveries due to difference in attendance of previous year - should be shown as reduction in the expenditure only in current year.


·         Credits up to Rs. 10 thousands pertaining to closed works - to be post as Earnings/Revenue


·         Para 217A -  Allocation of Receipts & Expenditure 


A.      The primary responsibility for the allocation of all receipts and payments rests with the concerned departmental officers.


B.      Each bill or voucher received from them should show the correct allocation of the receipt/expenditure in the fullest detail.


C.      The Accounts Department is responsible for seeing, to the extent it is possible for them to do so, that the allocation shown on the initial document is not prima facie incorrect.


·          Correct classification should be followed in recording the expenditure in accounts irrespective of whether provision in the budget has been made under correct budget head.


·         In order, however, to avoid undue variation between the budget and accounts figures, changed in accounting classification will not ordinarily be introduced during the course of the year.


·         In the case of works, the allocation of which has to be changed during the course of a year from one head of expenditure to another, classification of expenditure in that year should follow the original allocation. The change should be given effect to from the beginning of the next financial year only after making necessary provision in the Budget at the Budget stage or at the Revised Estimate stage to cover not only the estimated expenditure for the budget year but also write back of the expenditure incurred from the commencement of the work to the end of the previous year.


Link Heads between Govt Accounts & Commercial Accounts



Demands Payable



Bills Recoverable

Revenue / Capital





Always having

Credit balance

Credit balance

 Debit balance

Debit balance

Operated on

Expenditure side

Expenditure side

Earnings side

Earnings side