Railway Accounts Department Examinations

Showing posts with label statistics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label statistics. Show all posts

Wednesday, October 4, 2023

Glossary of Terms - Statistics


Glossary of Terms - Statistics 






Authorized Rolling Stock

Sanctioned allotment of Rolling Stock of Zonal Railways

Included: Stock ordered for or under construction, but not handed over to Traffic. 

Included: Stock sold or broken up but not replaced or removed from Authorized Stock 

Excluded: Stock replaced but still running  


Average Haul / Lead

The Average distance each  passenger or tonne of goods transported


Capital at charge

Book value of the Capital assets of the Railway


Capital Outlay

Capital expenditure incurred during the period (i.e., Financial year)  with the object of increasing concrete assets of a material character. 


Cross Traffic

All  traffic which neither originates nor terminates on the reporting Railway.


Departmental Train

Trains run for: 

  1. Revenue works / Capital works of an Open Line

  2. Workmen 

  3. Inspection 

  4. Pilot / Patrol Trains - In front of trains 

Note: Trains for Railway Coal are not included. 


Empty Running

Running of Vehicles without being loaded


Engine Failures

An Engine, if unable to work its booked train within the prescribed load from start to destination 

For a Period of:  

  1. 30 minutes or more  - Passenger Trains 

  2. 60 minutes or more - All other cases   

Due to reasons: 

  1. Defective design or material or bad workmanship in Shed / Workshop 

  2. Mismanagement by Crew or bad water / fuel

Thursday, September 28, 2023

Statistics in Railways - An Introduction


Statistics in Railways - An Introduction 


  1. Manual of Statistical Instruction Volume 1

  2. Statistics Manual 1 - Introduction 

Origin of the word Statistics:  German “Statistik” means Description of a State or a Country

Definition: The discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation of Data. 


  1. Numerically expressed 

  2. Aggregate of facts 

  3. Systematically collecting the Data 

  4. Should be comparable to each other. 

  5. Data are collected for a planned purpose. 


Statistics in Indian Railways: 

  • Statistics Organization Incharge - Director Statistics & Economics, who works under the control of Member Finance in Railway Board.  

  • Statistical Officer is incharge at Zonal Railways, who works under the control of PFA  

History of Indian Railways: 

  • Official Use - Printed triennially (every 3 years). 

  • Sale to the Public - Published Sexennially (every 6 years)

  • From 1969 onwards - Published decennially (every 10 years) 

Factors - Railway Statistics: The Railway Statistics are based on the followin factors: 

  1. Quantity - Expressed in number of tonnes and passengers transported and earnings derived. 

  2. Distance - Expressed in Kilometres 

  3. Duration - In Hours and Days 

  4. Service - In Trains, Vehicles, Wagons & Engines 

  • The above Primary Units are linked together to express in Composite items called Fundamental Units.  That is Fundamental Unit = Linking of Primary Units. Examples are: 

  1. Tonne Kilometres ( Fundamental Unit) - Tonnes & Kilometres ( Primary Units) 

  2. Passenger Kilometres (Fundamental Unit)  - Passengers & Kilometres (Primary Units  

  • Derivating Units: Relationship that exists between two sets of Primary Units or Fundamental Units are called as Derivative Units. Examples are: 

Derivative Unit = Primary/Fundamental Unit + Primary/Fundamental Unit

Derivative Units

Primary / Fundamental Units

Primary/Fundamental Units

Earnings Per Passenger 

Passenger Earnings (Primary)

Passengers carried (Primary) 

Earnings per Passenger per Kilometre 

Passenger Kilometres (Fundamental)

Passenger Earnings (Primary) 

Average distance travelled by Passenger or Lead

PKM-Passenger KiloMetres (Fundamental) 

Number of Passengers (Primary) 

Average load in Wagons per Train

Wagon KiloMetres (Fundamental) 

Goods Train Kilometres (Fundamental) 

Principal Heads - Statistics in Indian Railways are grouped as under: 


Principal Heads / Groups

Consists of : 


Economic & Financial Statistics

Tri-monthly approximate figures of earnings (every 10 days), Traffic handled in the shape of passengers booked, monthly statistics of tonnage lifted and wagons loaded and of revenue and expenditure


Transportation Statistics

No of trains run, Train KMs, Shunting KMs, Wagon/Vehicle KMs, Engine KMs etc


Commercial Statistics

No of Passengeers /Tonnes carried, PKM, NTKM, Average Lead, Average fare/Rate, Claims etc


Rolling Stock & Workshop Repair Statistics

Repair & Maintenance of Rolling Stock, Engine failures, Hot Boxes, Outturn etc 


Administrative Statistics

No of Staff, Sick days, Accidents, Pay Scales and Physical Statistics like Route KMs, No of Railway Stations, Gradients, curvature of the P.Way. 


Wednesday, May 3, 2023

Costs - Statistics



Consists of 


Packing, Charges for loading goods into trucks, Transport from consignor’s godown to the Railway Station, Unloading and loading of the Consignment into the Wagon


Delivery of consignment at the Destination station i.e., Cost of unloading from Wagon and loading in Truck and cost of transport from the destination station to consignee’s godown


Also called Inventory Costs 

Interest charges on the capital value of Goods locked up during the period of Transport. 

Formulae: Inventory Cost per Tonne = V x R x T / 365

V -  Value of Tonne of Goods  

R - Annual Rate of Interest 

T - No of days in transit from Consignor’s Godown to the Consignee


Hence delay in transit puts the Consignee at a loss because inventory costs will go up. 

If Railway transit takes longer time, traders would prefer Road Transport which takes much less time, even though Railway Freight may be lower.  


Consignor Cost + Consignee Cost + Inventory Cost + Freight 

Trader’s Cost is useful for comparing Railway freight with the Road Transport freight.  

Trader’s cost - Goes into the price of Commodity in the Market


Acquisition, Maintenance, Operation, Improvement, Replacement of transport facilities, compensation for damages, interest on borrowed money, Dividend on Capital etc.  


Cost of transport to the Nation in terms of national resources of labour and material 

Its calculation is required for resource allocation on different means of transport.  

Also, take into account the cost of movement of goods by other means of transport also 

Excludes: Element of all taxes and duties of Central and State Governments

Key Points for MCQ 

  1. Imputed costs also called Inventory Cost 


  1. Formulae of Imputed / Inventory Cost per Tonne  = V x R x T / 365  


  1. V - Value of Tonne of Goods 


  1. R - Annual Interest Rate 


  1. T - No of days in transit from Consignor’s Godown to Consignee 


  1. Trader’s cost = Consignor Cost + Consignee Cost + Inventory/Imputed Cost + Freight  


  1. The trader’s cost goes into the price of the commodity in the Market 


  1. Economic Cost excludes Taxes and Duties paid by the Central Govt. and State Govts.