Railway Accounts Department Examinations

Monday, November 6, 2023




§  Full form: Indian Railway  Catering & Tourism Corporation

§  Incorporated on 27th September, 1999  (incidentally, World Tourism day falls on 27th September)

§  Hqrs: New Delhi

§  Zonal Offices - 5 ( New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai & Secunderabad)

§  Regional Offices - 10 ( Lucknow, Chandigarh, Jaipur, Bhopal, Ahmadabad, Guwahati, Bhubaneshwar, Patna, Ernakulam & Bangalore)

§  Internet Ticketing Office - New Delhi

§  Tourism Office - New Delhi

§  Mini Ratna (Category 1) CPSE (Central Public Sector Enterprise)

§  Extended arm of Indian Railways in the areas of Internet ticketing, catering, tourism

§   Vision:  

1.       Global Reservation System

2.       Professionalization of  Catering & Hospitality services

3.       Development of Budget Hotels

4.       Special Tourism packages.

§  IRCTC is the fourth railway company to be listed on the bourses after RITES, Rail Vikas Nigam Ltd and IRCON International Ltd.

§  The initial public offering (IPO) of ₹645 crore concluded in October, 2019.

§  Subscribed 112 times at a price band of ₹315-320 per share (Face Value is Rs. 10), making it the most successful share sale since January 2018.

§  IRCTC stock price as on 06.11.2022 is Rs. 671 /-

§  The government now owns 87.4% stake in the railway tourism company.


                                                         Core activities

Internet Ticketing

Catering & Hospitality

Travel & Tourism

Packaged Drinking Water

 (Rail Neer)

 Internet Ticketing:

 §  Started in the year 2002 with i-Ticket.  Later, e-Ticket was introduced in the year 2005

2021-22 year data - No of Tickets Sold

In One Year

In One day

In One Hour

In One Minute

In One Second

41.75 Crores

11.44 Lakhs




§   IRCTC Mobile App - Approximately 10 Crores Users

§   IRCTC's share in Total Train Reserved Tickets   - 70 %.  Hope the share will climb up to 95 % in coming years.

§  New initiatives in Ticketing sector.

1.       Waitlist confirmation prediction facility

2.       Facility of Book now pay later (after 15 days)

3.       Train Vacant Seat chart module - to view complete information of vacant, booked and partially booked berths in a train reservation chart


      Catering & Hospitality

·         One of the largest hospitality & catering companies of the country.

·         Covering Passenger trains, Railway Stations etc.

·         On board catering services - 480 trains (incl: Rajdhani, Shatabdi, Duronto, Gatiman, Vande Bharat & Tejas)

·         TSV - Train Side Vending services in Trains which do not have pantry car provision.

·         Catering Policy 2017 - Divides Catering business into " Meal Production" and " Meal Distribution".

·         Executive Lounges at important stations with facilities of reclining sofa, buffet service, wi-fi, shower like in Airports with nominal charges.

·         E- Catering facility - Order online.

·         Live streaming of 43 Base Kitchensclick for New Delhi Base kitchen 


Travel & Tourism

·         Rail tour packages  - Runs 70 Rail tours

·         Special Tourist trains  - Bharat Darshan,  Aastha circuit

·         Buddhist circuit train

·         Majestic tourist train - to cover important destinations in Rajasthan 


·         Maharajas' Express - The best luxury train in the World  (for 2 people - 4 days journey covered Agra & Jaipur costs Rs. 6 Lakhs approx)   click for more information 


Public can book Trains, coaches and saloons exclusively for any event/function through online.

·         Retiring Rooms - Major Railway Stations

·         Budget Hotels - Rail Yatri Niwas at New Delhi and Howrah.  BNR(Bengal Nagpur Railway - old name of South East Railway)  Hotels at Puri & Ranchi.

·         Air ticketing through IRCTC website.

Rail Neer Plants

·         Branded packaging water "Rail Neer" for Rail commuters

·         11 operational Rail Neer plants.



·         A Navaratna CPSE under the Ministry of Railways (granted the status in the last year 2014-15). It is the first Navaratna CPSE (Central Public Sector Enterprise )of Indian Railways.

·         Incorporated in the year 1988 and commenced operations in the year 1989.

·         Headquarters is in New Delhi.

·         Present Chairman & Managing Director: Shri Sanjay Swarup, IRTS 1990 batch officer 

·         Started with the existing 7 ICDs (Inland Container Depot) taking over from Indian Railways in the year 1989.  Now it has a network of 61 ICDs (Inland Container Depot)/CFSs (Container Freight Station)

·         Indian Railways first ICD is at Bangalore in the year 1981.

·         Operates three core businesses 1) Cargo carrier 2) Terminal Operator 3) Warehouse Operator

·         Plans for setting up of 15 MMLPs – Multi Modal Logistic Parks during 12th Five year plan for providing seamless connectivity and one stop solution for customers.

·         Cargo handled during the year 2021-22 is 40.73 Lakhs TEUs- TEU means Twenty foot Equivalent Unit.

·         Profit after tax is Rs.1062 Crores during the year 2021-22.  It is listed in the NSE & BSE. 55% shares owned by promoter group i.e., Indian Railways.  Rest of the 45 % shares owned by the Public

·         Pioneer/Developer of containerization in the world- Malcolm McLean He was an American transport entrepreneur who developed the modern shipping container which revolutionized transport and international trade in the second half of the twentieth century. 

·         Containerization led to a significant reduction in the cost of freight transportation by eliminating the process of transportation by lorry to the port, unloaded into a warehouse and then reloaded into the ship 'piece by piece' and also improved reliability, reduced cargo theft, and cut inventory costs by shortening transit time. 

·         CONCOR  - Monopoly in the Container business in India, though 15 private players entered in this segment  to


Sunday, November 5, 2023

Reservations in Recruitment and promotions


                    Reservations in Recruitment and promotions

By Shri JC Nagaraja Rao, Dy.CPO (Retd)

  1. Articles 16 (4), 335, 341 and 342 of the Constitution of India provide for reservations in services in favor of SC, ST and other Socially and Economically backward classes.

  2. Article 16 (6) was inserted in the constitution through 103 amendment for providing reservation in favor of economically weaker sections w.e.f 14.01.2019.

  3.  Article 16 (4A) provides for reservation in the matter of promotions in favor of SC & STs.

  4.  In recruitment reservation is provided for SC, ST, OBC, EWS, PwBD, Ex-servicemen. 

  5. In promotions reservation is provided for SC, ST & PwBD only.

  6. SC is from either Hindu or Sikh or Buddhist religion. 

  7. ST can be of any religion.

  8. OBCs will be from the list of castes prepared by the Central Govt.

  9. EWS are those who are not eligible for SC,ST & OBC reservation. 

  10. The total reservation for all categories should not exceed 50% in each cadre. Cadre means grade/Level. For example Jr Clerks, Sr Clerks, OS & Ch OS are four separate cadres for the purpose of reservations in clerical cadres. 

  11. Necessary certificate from competent authority in prescribed form should be submitted to avail reservation. (District Magistrate/District Collector/Revenue Officers not below the rank of Tahsildar & Medical Board)

  12. The verification of SC/ST certificates should be done within three months from the date of appointment.

  13. Suitable departmental and criminal action will be taken for submission of fake certificates.

  14. In recruitment reservation for SC, ST and OBC is 15%, 7.5% and 27% respectively.

  15.  In promotions reservation for SC and ST is 15% and 7.5% respectively. No reservation for OBC in promotions.

  16. Reservation is post based. Not on vacancy bases.

Example for Post Based Reservation:

Sanctioned posts = 100

Reservation for SC = 100 x 15% =             15

Reservation for ST = 100 x 7.5% = 7.5 ( ie 8 )

Reservation for OBC = 100 x 27% =          27

Total reservation = 50 (15+8+27)

Un-reserved posts = 50

Available SC employees on roll = 10 

Available ST employees on roll = 5

Available OBC employees on roll = 20

Available UR = 40

Total available on roll = 75 (10+5+20+40)

Vacancies = 25 (100-75)

SC   requirement = 15 -10 =  5

ST   requirement =    8- 5   = 3

OBC requirement = 27-20 = 7

UR requirement =    50 -40 = 10

Category wise requirement = 5+3+7+10 = 25


Note: Un-reserved vacancies means ‘No reservation’ for these posts. They are filled on merit or on seniority. Anybody ie SC / ST /OBC / UR who is in merit or is senior can be appointed against unreserved vacancies.

  1. In direct recruitment, the reserved category candidates who are selected on the same standard as applied to General Candidates will not be adjusted against reserved vacancies.

  2.  Only when he/she avails the relaxations in age limit, experience, qualification, permitted number of chances etc will be adjusted against reserved vacancies.

  3. In Railway Group-A vacancies are filled by Direct Recruitment through UPSC and by promoting Group-B Officers.

  4. Group-B vacancies are filled by promoting Group-C employees through departmental selection. ( 70% promotional Quota & 30% LDCE Quota)

  5. Group-C vacancies are filled through Direct Recruitment (through RRB and RRC) and by giving promotion within Group-C ( Selection, General selection, LDCE, GDCE, Trade Test etc)       

  6. Separate rosters registers should be maintained for DR, Promotion, LDCE and GDCE.  

  7. Reservation rules are not applicable to postings on deputation. 

  8. No reservation for single post cadre. The vacancy should be filled by seniority or merit as the case may be.

  9. The unfilled posts of SC/ST/OBC should not be de-reserved i.e should not be converted to UR.

  10. Such posts should be carried forward to next recruitment year. The same rule applies to promotions also.

  11. However, posts can be exchanged between SC and ST if the vacancy could not be filled due to non-availability of candidates of that particular community ( ie SC or ST) in the third recruitment year. 

  12. At any given point of time , the rule of maximum 50% quota should be followed on the cadre as a whole and not on the basis of individual recruitment where it may happen that all posts may fall to the share of either SC or ST or OBC due to carry forward rule for unfilled vacancies.

  13. Candidates appointed on compassionate grounds should be shown against the appropriate roster point as per his community i.e SC against SC, ST against ST, OBC against OBC and UR against UR.

  14. Candidates who are appointed against Sports/Cultural/Scouts & Guides quota should not be shown against SC/ST/OBC reservation points because their selection for appointment is purely on merit in their respective fields.

  15. Employees who are rendered surplus and absorbed in alternative posts should be shown against the appropriate roster points as per his community i.e. SC against SC, ST against ST, and UR against UR. If there is no SC/ST point vacant, such surplus staff should be booked against UR point because we should not keep the surplus staff waiting for an alternative appointment for want of SC/ST vacancy.

  16. Reservation in recruitment and promotion shall be as per roster. This roster is post based. Not vacancy based. 

  17. In the Post Based Roster (BPR)  system, if a vacancy arises in the cadre due to Transfer/Promotion/Retirement/Death etc of SC/ST/OBC employee, that vacancy should be filled only by SC/ST/OBC candidate/employee respectively.

  18. The PBR system is applicable in promotions from Group-C to Group-B, within Group-B and Group-B to Group-A. 

  1. Reservation for OBC in recruitment:

All OBCs are not eligible for reservation.

Only those coming under Creamy Layer Category in OBC are eligible. 

Candidates whose family annual income is not more than Rs 8 Lakhs come under Creamy Layer category.

The certificate shall be from the local revenue authority not less than Tahasildar.

Age relaxation 3 years.

  1. Reservation for Ex-servicemen in recruitment:

10% in Group-C posts & 20% in erstwhile Group-D (Level-1) posts are reserved for them.

Should have put in 15 years service in Army/Air force/ Navy and has passed Army Class-I certificate or equivalent. 

Age relaxation: 15 years.

  1. Reservation for PH candidates in recruitment and promotions:

According to Right of persons with disabilities Act 2016, 4% reservation in recruitments and promotions should be provided to physically handicapped persons who are suffering from the following:

  1. Blindness and low vision

  2. Deaf and hard hearing

  3. Locomotors disability (including cerebral palsy, Leprosy cured, dwarfism, acid attack victims and muscular dystrophy).

  4. Autism intellectual disability, specific learning disability and mental illness.

  5. Multiple disabilities from among (a) to (d) above including deaf and blindness

Note: The minimum disability should be 40%.

Distribution of 4% reservation is as under:

For category (a) above – 1%

For Category (b) above – 1%

For Category (c ) above- 1%

For categories (d) & (e) above – 1%

Railways can exempt any post/cadre from the above reservations for PwD candidates.

Necessary Certificate from competent Medical Board constituted by Central/State Govt should be obtained and produced.

Age relaxation is 10 years . 

  1. Reservation for Economically Weaker Section candidates:

EWS reservation is only for General category candidates (i.e Those not eligible for reservation under SC/ST/OBC communities.)

10% reservation in Un-reserved vacancies.

No age relaxation.

EWS certificate from State Revenue Authorities not lesser than Tahasildar.

Gross annual income of a family is not more than 8 Lakh rupees in a financial year.

Family shall not own 5 acres of agricultural land and above, Residential flat of 1000 Sq ft and above, Residential plot of 100 Sq Yards and above in areas notified municipalities and Residential plot of 200 Sq Yards and above in areas other than notified municipalities. 

  1. Reservation for Course Completed Act Apprentice:

20% of vacancies in Level-1 posts (Erstwhile Group-D posts in GP 1800/-)

Should have undergone training in Railway Establishments and 

Should have a National Apprentice Certificate issued by National Council of Vocational Training (NCVT). 

  1. Reservation for Minorities:

4.5% of OBC vacancies are to be filled by Minorities. 

To avail the benefit of reservation, the person should be belonging to Minority Community as defined in Section 2 ( C ) of the National Commission for Minorities Act 1992 and his caste/community should have been included in the notified list of OBCs. 


  1. Vertical and Horizontal Reservation:

Vertical Reservation means reservation for  SC/ST/OBC(NCL)/UR.

Horizontal Reservation means reservation for  PH/EWS/Ex-servicemen/CCAA.

  1. UR = UR(merit) +PH(merit) +EWS((merit) + Ex-servicemen(merit)

SC = SC + PH(SC) + Ex-Servicemen (SC)

ST = ST + PH (ST) + Ex-Servicemen (ST)

OBC = OBC + Minority (OBC) + PH (OBC)  + Ex-servicemen(OBC)